Endocrine System: Introduction

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Khadija_Abdi
51 views
Subjects:
lecture 21
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

what are the endocrine organs

hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, overies/testies, kidneys, stomach, heart, skin adipose tissue.

2

what are the endocrine glands

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal.

3

endocrine

secrete products into interstitial fluid and diffuse into blood

4

exocrine

secretes products into ducts or lumen or to the outer surface of the body.

5

what are hormones

mediator molecules released in one part of the body that regulate activity in other parts of the body

6

what do local hormones do

act locally on neighboring cell or on the same cell that secreted them without first entering the blood stream.

7

paracrine

neighboring cell

8

autocrine

is the same cell

9

what is an example of autocrine

histamine released by mast cells stimulates HCl secretion from parietal cells in stomach

10

what is an example paracrine

IL-2 released from helper T cells stimulates proliferation of helper T cells and activation of cytotoxic T cells

11

what is circulating hormones

enter interstitial fluid and then the bloodstream

12

steriod hormones are drived from ____________

cholest

13

what makes the steroid hormone special

chemical groups attached to core of structure.

have four rings attached to them

14

name some steroid hormones

cortisol, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, aldosterone

15

what do thyroid hormones have attached to them

tyrosine ring with attach iodines

16

what is nitric oxide

a gas, hormones, and neurotransmitter.

17

peptide and protein hormones are __________

chains of amino acids

18

peptide and proteins hormones secrete ______________ hormones

hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones

19

what are biogenic amines

modified amino acids

20

what are types of peptide and protein hormones

oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), human growth hormone (hGH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

21

name the catecholamino

NE, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, melatonin, histamine

22

Eicosanoids are what types of hormones

water soluble hormone

23

where Eicosanoids are drived from

arachidonic acid (20 carbon fatty acids)

24

prostaglandins and leukotrienes are examples what type of hormones

Eicosanoids

25

Eicosanoids are what types of hormones

local hormones

26

what are the functions of hormone

helps regulate: extracellular fluid, metabolism, biological clock, contraction of cardiac & smooth muscle, glandular secretion, some immune functions, growth & development, reproduction.

27

hormones will only affect what type of cells

target cells with specific membrane or intracellular (protein) receptors.

28

what happens if there is no receptor

there will be no hormone receptor interaction

29

what happens if a bad receptor

hormone will not going to hormone.

30

what are the general mechanism of action of hormones

binds to cell surface or receptor inside target cell

31

how does the cell response to the hormones

synthesis of new molecules

changes in membran permeability

alter rates of reaction

32

what happens to different target cells when hormones bind to them

they will response differently

33

what happens to hepatocytes when insulin binds to it

it stimulates glycogen sysnthesis

34

what happens to adipocytes when insulin binds to it

it stimulates triglyceride synthesis

35

Hormones binds to same ________ on different cells

receptors

36

what type of hormones are steroids

lipid soluble hormone

37

the receptors for a steroid hormone are ____________ types of hormones.

intracellular

38

steroids work by

changing the level of specific gene expression

39

lipid soluble proteins need ____________ while in the blood capillary

transport protein

40

a hormone without transport protein is called

free hormones

41

steroid proteins diffuse into the Iipid bilayer why

because they are lipid so they jeu go through the lipid bilayer

42

what does the activated receptor-hormones complex do

alters gene expression (take a section of the DNA to make a new protein)

43

The hormone than produces ______ after it alters the gene expression.

mRNA

44

the new formed mRNA goes to the cytosol where it directs formation of ___________

specific proteins on ribosome

45

what do new proteins do

they alter the cells activity

46

what do peptide hormone bind to

bind to cell surface receptors

47

peptide bonds evoke changes in the activity of existing proteins through

second messenger

48

what is the second messenger called

cyclic -AMP

49

what do second messengers do

alter the phosphorylation state of existing proteins

50

what results when peptide hormones binds to its receptor

it activates G protein

51

what happens when G protein is activated

it activates adenylate cyclase

52

what does adenlate cyclase do

converts ATP to cAMP

53

what serves as the second messengers after peptide hormones

cAMP

54

what do cAMP do

activates protein kinase

55

what does the activates protein kinase do

phosphorylate cellular proteins

56

phosporlation of cellular proteins is what type of ____________ process.

active

57

Do the same hormone use the same second messengers

they may use different second messengers in different target cells

58

second messenger initiate ____________.

a cascade of biochemical reactions.

59

first messengers only influence what type of proteins

proteins inside the cells