Chapter 12a

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1

why are fungi so prolific

spores

2

fungi eukaryotic or prokaryote

eukaryote

3

fungi relationship with oxygen

aerobic or facultatively anaerobic

4

what is mycology

study of fungi

5

fungi are photo/chemo, hetero/auto

chemoheterotrophic

6

what can fungi break down

complex carbohydrates

7

fungi cell membrane

have sterol (cholesterol making it more rigid)

8

fungi cell wall

chitin

9

are fungal spores and endospores the same

no

10

how do fungi reproduce

asexually and sexually

11

what does azole indicate

antifungal

12

can fungi be true anearobesn

no

13

are fungi multicellular?

on verge, questionable if it is muticellular or just compartmentalized

14

how do fungi obtain food

absorption

15

how are fungi classified

based on the types of spores they produce

16

can we use biochemical testing for fungi

no

17

pH for fungi

5

18

what types of substances do fungi grow on

substances with low moisture content

19

what fungi are facultative anaerobe

yeast

20

osmotic pressure effect on fungi

ressistant

21

why can fungi grow on high sugar and salt

resistant to osmotic pressure

22

fungi nitrogen requirement

require less nitrogen then bacteria

23

what is the thallus

body

24

what are hyphae

filaments

25

what is the thallus made of in molds

hyphae

26

mass of hyphae

mycelium

27

purpose of a vegetative hyphae

obtaining nutrients

28

purpose of an aerial hyphae

reproduction

29

how do mold type bacteria colonies grow

out in concentric circles

30

what are yeast

unicellular fungi

31

how do yeast reproduct

budding

32

what is a body scar on yeast

where cells had previously pinched off

33

what is a pseudohypha

not truly a hyphae, enlogated chain of buds

34

how do fission yeast divide

symmetrically

35

how do budding yeast divide

asymmetrically

36

what does dimorphic mean

two morphologies that are triggered or controlled by temperature

37

yeast like dimorphic fungi temperature and morphology

37, ovoid- don't need hyphae in nutrient rich environment

38

what are mold like form of fungi like and temp

25, put out hyphae to find new resources

39

how does asexual reproduction occur

when conditions are optimal, put out ariel hyphae and put spores into the environment, once in environment they can germinate and release new hyphae

40

how does sexual reproduction occur

have one donate to the other and form diploid sporangium or zygospore, undergoes meiosis and gets to monopoloidy

41

sporganium indicates

spores are in a thin membrane

42

do fungi have male and female genders

no

43

what is a fungal zygote called

sporangium or a zygospore

44

types of hyphae in terms of division

septate or conencytic

45

what are septate hyphae

means that hyphae are compartmentalized, have septum, porous so cytoplasm can go from one to the other

46

what are coencytic hyphae

no septa, has mutliple nuclei but still unicellular

47

are sexual or asexual spores more common

asexual

48

types of asexual spores

conidia

sporganium

anthrospores

pseudohyphae

chalmydocondiium

49

conidia spores

asexual

have finger like projections with chains of spores at the end

moves around easily by air currents

50

sporangium spores

forms in sac, have thin membrane around spores

asexual

51

arthrospores

break off by fragmentation which gives rise to a new organism

asexual

52

pseudohyphae

things are formed by buddings, pinch off daughter cells

asexual

53

what are chalmydoconidium

enlargements within the hyphae, give rise to new structures when broken off

54

what does the - strand indicate

the one that the nucleas is donated too ( like a female)

55

what is karyogamy

when the nuclei fuze to form a sporagnium

56

what is it referred to when nuclei is donated in fungi for sexual reproduction

plasmogamy

57

sexual spores

zygospores

ascospores

basidiospores

58

what are zygospores

sexual

two hyphae fuze to produce one zygospore

59

what are ascospores

formed in a sac

60

are sporganium or ascospores more numerous?

sporangium

61

what are basidiospores

found on the underside of a mushroom

62

what are the phyla of fungi

zygomycota

ascomycota

basidiomycota

63

what are zygomycota generally

conjugation fungi

64

zygomycota includes:

sexual- zygospores

asexual- sporangiospores

65

what are ascomycota

sac fungi

66

ascomycota include

sexual ascospores

asexual conditiospores

67

what did anamorphs loose

ability to reproduce sexually

68

what are basidiomycota

club fungi

69

basidiomycota include

sexual basidiospores

asexual conditiospores

70

what are telemorphs

produce both sexual and asexual spores

71

telemorphs include

zygomycota, ascomycota, and basidiomycota

72

anamorphic are a descendant of

ascomycota

73

what are deuteromycota

placed here if sexual report was not observes

74

most fungi are considered ____ pathogens

oppurtunistic

75

what does it mean to be an opportunistic pathogen

when diminish normal flor, fungi proliferate and become pathogenic

76

examples of things caused by fungi

yeast infections

cutaneous nail fungi

oral thrush

77

why do we see fungal pathogens in newborns

have no normal fecal flora

78

examples of zygomycota

rhizopus- break mold

mucor-food contaminant

79

characteristics of mucor

zygomycota

ubitiquitous- around us all the time

obtain through inhalation

80

microsporum and trichophyton are examples of

ascomycota