Chapter 7

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1

sepsis refers to

microbial contamination

2

asepsis is

absence of significant contamination

3

surgical aseptic techniques prevent

microbial contamination of wound

4

aseptic techniques of lab

prevent contamination of cultures

5

sterlization

removal of all microbial life

6

commerical sterilization

killing C. Botulinum endospores

7

disinfection

removal of pathogens

8

antisepsis

removal of pathogens from living tissue

9

degerming

removal of microbes from a limited area

10

sanitization

lower microbial counts on eating utensils

11

biocide/germicide

kills microbes

12

bacteriostasis

inhibitin ( not killing) microbes

13

do we need sterilization for everything

no

14

what aseptic techniques are used in the food industry

commerical

15

what asepsis do you do when you give someone a shot

degerming

16

how do bacterial populations die

at constant logarithmic rate

17

in ordinal counting scale, what does bacterial death look like in graph

inverse j

18

1 log decrease= population decrease by

90%

19

effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment depends on

number of microbes

environment

temperature, pH

time of exposure

microbial characteristics

20

cleaning products pH

pH extremes, some more acidic or basic- help kill organisms

21

why are mycobacterium hard to disinfect

have wax cell layer

22

what can kill mycobacterium

lysol

23

actions of microbial controls agensa

alternation of membrane permeability

damage to proteins

damadge to nucliec acids

24

is attacking topical skin or deeper tissue more harmful

deeper tissue

25

what is something that damadges nucleic acids

uv light

26

thermal death point

lowest temperature at which all cells in a culture are killed in 10 minutes

27

thermal death time

time to kill all cells in a culture

28

decimal reduction time

minutes to kill 90% of a population at a given time

29

in top what is held constant

time

30

what does moist heat do

denatures proteins

31

autoclave uses what to sterilize

steam under pressure

32

typical autoclave temp/pressure

121C at 15 psi

33

can an autoclave kill spores?

yes, high heat and steam allows penetration of the spores

34

pasteurization

reduces spoilage organisms and pathogens

35

does pasteurization achieve sterlization

no

36

possible temps/ times you can do for pastuerization

63C for 30 mins

72C for 15 sec

140C for <1 sec

37

what organisms are able to survive pasteurization

thermoduric organisms

38

where is raw milk illegal

new jersey

39

possible pathogens in unpastuerized milk in the US

camplyobacter, escherichia coli, listeria, salmonella, yersinia

40

possible pathogens in unpastuerized outside the US

brucella and mycobacteria

41

illness from bacteria in unpasteurized milk leads to

diarrhea, stomach cramps, fever, headache, vomitting from hours/weeks

42

illness that was obtained outside of the US symptoms

flue like, recurring fever, night sweats, cough

43

who are more susceptible to pathogens in unpasteurized dairy

weakened immune systems: elderly, children, cancer, organ transplant, HIV

pregnant woman and unborn babies

44

dry heat sterilization kills by

oxidation

45

how to dry heat sterilize

flaming, incinerating, hot air sterilization

46

hot air compared to autoclave

hot air you have to do much longer time

47

hot air standard equivalent to autoclave standard

170C, 2hr

48

physicial methods of microbial control

filtration

low temps

high pressure

desiccation

osmotic pressuer

radiation

49

filtration effect on microbes

removes microbes

50

low temps effect on microbes

inhibit growth

51

high pressure effect on microbes

denatures protiens

52

desiccation effect on microbe

prevent metabolism

53

osmotic pressure effect on microbe

cause plasmolysis

54

types of radiation

ionizing radiation

nonionizing radiation

microwaves

55

ex: of ionizing radiation

x rays, gamma rays, electron beams

56

ex: of non ionizing radiation

UV

57

are microwaves antimicrobial

no, they just kill by heat

58

ionizing characteristics

very penetrating, damages DNA

59

nonionizing characteristics

doesn't penetrate, cloth can block radiation

have to do for a longer time

60

what radiation is used as a surface protection

nonionizing

61

what is bactericidal range of uv

280-260

62

what is a good way to sterilize heat labile items that can not go into the autoclave

ionizing

63

principles of effective disinfection

concentration of disinfectant

organic matter

pH

time

64

why do we consider organic matter in effective disinfectant

blood, feces, and ruin hold onto microbes

65

ways to evaluate a disinfectant

use-dilution test

disk diffusion method

66

steps of use-dilution test

1. metal rings dipped in test bacteria are dried

2.dried cultures placed in disinfectant for 10 min at 20 C

3. rings trasnferred to culture media to determine whether bacteria survived treatment

67

how do we know if disinfectant is effective in use-dilution test

should have fewer numbers than previous, decrease microbial load

68

how do you do the disk diffusion method

impregnant liquid disinfectant onto filter paper disk and put it on the plate and look for a zone of ihibition

69

what test organisms are used on disk-diffusion method

gram + (Staph aerues), gram - (ecoli), gram - (pseudomonas)

70

why do we include pseudomonas on the disk-diffusion method

they are very resistant to antibiotics and disinfectant, can cause clinical organisms

71

what is ophenolphenol

found in lysol

72

is ophenylphenol as effective as chlorine at killing microbes

no

73

are quats more effective on gram + or -

gram +

74

do squats kill psuedodomonas

no

75

why was soaking surgical material previously in quats a problem

doesn't kill the pseudonomas

76

when disinfecting why is it important to know the texture of the microbe you are disinfecting

if liquid like, might dilute your disinfectant and won't be as effective as you intended it to be

77

phenol properties as a disinfectant

irritant and strong oder

78

what is found in 1% of throat sprays

phenol

79

what type of disinfectant is lysol

phenolic

80

phenol is

carbolic acid

81

penolics are

cresols or O-phenylphenol

82

why are phenolics preferred to phenol

benzene ring makes it less irritating

83

characteristics of phenolics

injures membranes

works against myobacterium

good with organics and stable

84

example of a mycobacterium that lysol can target

tb

85

how do bisphenols whork

disrupt the plasma membrane

86

what are bisphenols chemically

hexachlorophene, triclosan

87

what is pHisoHex

bisphenol

88

where is pHisoHex used

in nurseries to control G+

89

Where is tricolosan used

kitchen cutting boards, handles of knives, and plastic kitchenware, soaps, body wash, dish cleaning detergent, deoderant and toohpaste

90

why do we have to use pHisoHex on babies

baby has no normal flora, everything they come in contact with establishes the normal flora- want to minimize exposure so they are gradually exposed to things

91

what ocurs if pHisoHex is used excessively

can cause neurological damage

92

what cocerns surround the use of Triclosan

in alot of products, if overuse, start to develope resistant organisms

93

why is there concern about putting Triclosan in toothpaste

looks like i cant be an endocrine disrupter

94

how does triclosan work against microbes?

inhibits formation of lipids- disrupting the plasma membrane

95

what is the problem with Triclosans attacking properties

plasma membrane of humans is very similar to microbes

96

what bacterium do triclosan work against in general

gram +, most gram- and fungi

97

does triclosan attack pseudomonas?

no

98

what is triclosan best at targetting

gram +

99

what is bigaunides

chlorohexidine

100

how do bigaunides work

disrupt the plasma membrane

101

what bacteria to biguanides attack?

both gram + and gram -

102

if something can kill both gram + and - what is it reffered as

broad spectrum

103

what are biguanides used for

surgical skin preperation and surgical hand scrubs

104

biguanides are considered what type of aseptic technique

antiseptic

105

what is avagard

new waterless pre-surgical scrub

106

what is avard made with

chlorohexidine and ethanol

107

what microbes are resistant to biguanides

mycobacteria, endospores, and protozoan cysts

108

examples of common halogens

iodine and chlorine

109

how to halogens work against microbes

inhibit protein preventing catablosim

110

what do oxidizing agents combine with

tyrosine

111

what is a tincture

aqueous alcohol solution, redish/brown liquid

112

what is iodophore

iodine+ organic molecule

113

why was iodophore created

doesnt stain and is less irritating than regular iodine

114

what is betadine

povidone-iodine

115

what is betadine used for

water treament

116

what is bleach

hyphochlorous acid

117

what is the chemical formula for chloroz

NaOCL

118

what can chlorine be used for

drinking water, swimming pools, and sewage

119

what is chlorine dioxide

gaseous form of chlorine that kills endospores

120

what are chloramines chemicaly

chlorine + ammonia

121

how do chloramines work

stable and release chlorine over long periods of time

122

where are chloramines used

in glassware and utensiles

water treatment

123

chloramines effect on water treatment

control taste and odor problems

124

what is chloroamines toxic to

aquarium

125

tablet of choramines are call

chlor-floc

126

examples of alcohols used as disinfectants

ethanol and isopropanol

127

how do alcohols work against microbes

denatures proteins and dissolve lipids

128

what type of agent are alcohols

degerming agent

129

can you use 100 proof to degerm

no

130

proof good for degerming

60-95%

131

what proof do we typially use isopropanol

70%

132

what occurs if you get down to 50% proof

have to leave on for a longer time to actually kill things

133

what is resistant to alchols

endospores, noneveloped viruses

134

Examples of heavy metals used as antiseptics

Ag, Hg, Cu, Zinc

135

how do heavy metals work

oligodynamic action

136

what is the oligodynamic action

small amount can penetrate and be effective

137

what is 1% silver nirtate used for

put in the eyes of newborn to prevent gonorrehea obtained possibly through birthing canal

138

what is silver sulfdiazine

sulfer+sulfa drug

139

what is silver-sulfadiazine used for

burn patients and dressings- gentler approach from sites getting infected

140

what is surfacine

silver-iodide

141

what is surfacine used for

surface sterilizing agent

142

why dont we use mercuric chloride anymore

toxicity problems and can lead to neurological problems if exposed excessively

143

what is copper sulfate

algicide

144

what is algicide used for

water and paints

145

zinc is a ____ metal

galvanized metal

146

where is zinc found

mouthwashes and paint

147

coppy and zinc are used to protect against

shingles

148

surface active agents=

surfatants

149

example of surfactants

quats

detergents

150

what are quats

zephiran and cepacol

151

what are quats used for

disinfecting things we can soak such as probs

152

acid anionic detergents are used for

washing dishes

153

what is rgm

rapidly growing mycobacterium, common in the environment

154

what quat is used for poultry washing

cetplypridinium chlorid

155

what is resistant to quats

pseudomonas, spores, mycobacteria, and rgm

156

quats are strongly effective against

Gram +

157

what are quarternary ammonium compounts and cationic detergents used for

batericidal, denature protiens, disrupt the plasma membrane and inhibi enzymes

158

in order what antiseptics are the most effective

tincture of iodine

tincture of zephiran

aqueous zephiran

soap and water

159

examples of food preservatives

organic acids, nitrates and nitrites, and anitbiotics

160

sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and calcium proponate are examples of

organic acids used in preservatives

161

how do organic acids work against microbes

inhibit metabolism

162

typically where are organic acids found

control in foods and cosmetics

163

what is calcium propiontae used in

in bread

164

nitrites and nitrates prevent ____ germination

endospore

165

what are nitrates and nitrites used for

helps retain red color in meats

166

nisin and natamycin are examples of

antibiotics

167

what are antibioitcs used for

prevent spoilage of cheese, let things ferment to a degree

168

cidex

type of aldehyde

169

what is OPA

ortho-phtaladehyde, less irritaing

170

how do aldehydes work

inactivate proteins by cross linking with functional groups

171

how do gaseous sterilants work

deanture proteins

172

property of gaseous sterliants

highly penetrating

173

what is ethylene oxide

excellint gas sterilizing agent

174

problem with ehtylene oxide

can be a carcinogen

175

what is Chlorine dioxide

- less toxic gas

-can be used for anthrax in postal facilties

176

how do peroxygens work

denature proteins and ihibit metabolism

177

ozone is an exmaple of a

peroxygen

178

what is ozone used for

natural disinfectant to clean water

179

benzoyl peroxide is an example of a ____. functions

peroxygen, used in acne treatment- effective against anearobes

180

hydrogen peroxide is good for what instead of wounds

on inanimate objects

181

what is peracetic acid an example of and use

pyrogen, effective liquid sporicide

182

H2O2 is a good_____ but a poor _____

disinfectant, poor antiseptic

183

H2O2 can be uzed in what?

plasma gas sterilization in aseptic packaging

184

how does plasma sterilization work

excited gas destrys microbes

185

supercritical fluids are critical in

transplants

186

example of a super critical flui

carbon dioxide

187

when carbon dioxide is compressed it has properties of what

liquid and gas

188

order from more resistant to least resisitant

prions

endospores

mycobacteria

cycts of protozoa

vegetative protozoa

gram - bacteria

fungi

viruses without envelopes

gram positive bacteria

viruses with lipid envelope

189

what is the most resistant microbe

prios

190

what is the least resistant microbe

viruses with lipid envelope

191

are green products antimicrobial

no, just rids of dirt

192

what are prions

protanous infectious agents

193

endospores are gram ___ and what shape

gram + rods

194

why is gram negative harder to disinfect that gram +

lps layer makes it harder