BIO Test 4 Review

Helpfulness: +3
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by kjansen01
724 views
book cover
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 16, 27, 28
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The hormone which maintains the corpus luteum

Human chorionic gonadotropin

2

After ovulation, how long is the egg viable

24

3

Where is ANP synthesized

The heart

4

How do sperm move along the ductus deferens

Peristaltic contractions

5

What do the umbilical arteries, ductus venosus, foramen oval and the ductus arterioles become after birth

Umbilical artery - Medial umbilical ligament

Ductus venosus - Ligamentum venosum

Foramen ovale - Fossa ovalis

6

A slow growing cancer which may never present a threat

Prostate

7

What is the chorion?

The outermost membrane surrounding an embryo, In mammals (including humans), it contributes to the formation of the placenta

8

In the ovarian cycle, high levels of estrogen causes a release of what

LH Release

9

The body system which undergoes the most changes during pregnancy

Cardiovascular system

10

What is polyspermy

One egg fertilized by more than one sperm

11

What is abrupto placenta

Premature detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall

12

What is up-regulation

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ

13

How do steroids act?

...

14

Function of the bulbospongiosus muscles

The ability of a male to ejaculate

15

How do amino acid based hormones exert most of their effects

Second messengers

16

How do glucocorticoids help the body deal with stress

Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

17

Function of zonal inhibiting proteins

Destroy sperm receptors on oocyte

18

What is spermiogenisis

Formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

19

Some effects of estrogen

Growth of breasts at puberty

20

Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH

Inhibin

21

What are the causes of genital herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis

Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions

Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males

Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms

Syphilis is caused by a bacteria that may lead to death if untreated

22

Know substances which can pass through the placental barriers

Nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

23

Which female structure is homologous to the male scrotum

Labia majora

24

Most important risk for testicular cancer in young males

Non descent of the testes

25

Sequence of pre embryonic structures

Zygote, morula, blastocyst

26

Examples of steroid based hormones

Estrogen, aldosterone, cortisone

27

What forms the primitive streak

Cells on the dorsal surface of the two-layered embryonic disc migrate to form a raised groove

28

Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus

-Polyuria (frequent urination) sodium chloride, potassium excreted

-Polydipsia (excessive thirst) from dehydration

-Polyphagia (extreme hunger) cells are starving so person feels hungry despite eating huge amounts of food. Starvation state remains until insulin is available

29

What's important about the blood-testis barrier

Because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system

30

Hormones necessary for the "fight or flight" mode

Epinephrine

31

What do adipocytes secrete

Leptin

32

The most important mineral corticoid in regulating electrolytes in the ECF

Aldosterone

33

Know what is found in the 3 sections of sperm

...

34

What is mainly responsible for forming placental tissue

Trophoblast

35

Functions of aldosterone

Regulates electrolyte concentrations in ECF

36

What is capacitation

Functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize the secondary oocyte.

37

Know stages of labor

Onset: secretion of oxytocin, high estrogen levels, contractions

Expulsion: fetus is delivered

Placental: afterbirth expelled

38

After implantation, what happens to the trophoblast

Trophoblast becomes chorion

39

Know facts about the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

Partly contained within the infundibulum

40

Parts of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

Hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary gland

Testes

41

Why doesn’t semen enter the bladder during ejaculation

The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes

42

Functions of the vagina

serves as a passageway for menstrual flow

Is the birth canal

Receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse

43

Where does fertilization occur

Fallopian tubes

44

Function of the dartos and cremaster muscles

Regulate temperature of testes

45

What hormone controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins

GnRH

46

Primary function of the uterus

Receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

47

What hormone is necessary for ovulation

LH

48

Examples of glucocorticoids

Cortisol, cortisone, and hydrocortisone

49

What causes gluconeogenesis in the liver

Cortisol

50

Functions of oxytocin

Stimulation of uterine contractions

Stimulation of breast milk ejection

Postpartum bleeding control

Labor induction

51

When does the endometrium enter its secretory phase

Progesterone levels are at their highest

52

TH enters the cell similar to what hormone

Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

53

When are progesterone levels the highest

During the secretory phase

54

How does the 2nd messenger mechanism of hormone action operate

B1inding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

55

What effects does leptin have

Adipocytes

56

Some changes caused by hormones

A change in membrane potential

The stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis

An increase in enzymatic activity

57

What causes erection of the penis

Parasympathetic reflexes

58

How do the testes respond to excessive body warmth

They move away from the pelvic cavity

59

An erection is a result of what

Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood

60

The gland responsible for immune system development

Thymus gland

61

Mammary glands are what type of glands

The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system

62

Function of the corpus luteum

If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo

63

What are hormones

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic
function of other cells in the body

64

What are the fallopian tubes

Tubes that extend from the lateral angle of the uterus and terminate near the ovary; they serve as a passageway for the ovum from the ovary to the uterus and for the spermatozoa from the uterus toward the ovary. Also called oviducts and uterine tubes

65

Neural tissue is formed from what germ layer

Ectoderm

66

What is the cause of identical twins

One egg is fertilized by sperm and the zygote splits into two

67

Name the germ layers

Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

68

Examples of positive feedback systems

Oxytocin release

69

Muscle tissue is formed from what germ layer

Mesoderm

70

Function of interstitial endocrine cells

Testosterone

71

Function of relaxin

Relax pubic symphysis

72

Similarities of human sperm and egg

Same number of chromosomes

73

Which hormone stimulates sperm production in the testes

FSH

74

Consequences of undescended testes

Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced

75

How to enzymes proteases and acrosin function in reproduction

They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate

76

The role of the sustentocytes

Sustentocytes provides nutrients and essential development signals to the developing sperm and form the blood testis barrier that prevents sperm antigens from escaping into the blood

77

What do the seminal vesicles do

Fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen and when mixed with seminal vesicle fluid spermatozoa become mobile (capacitation)

78

Main targets of growth hormone

Bones and skeletal muscles

79

Secretion of progesterone stimulates what

Preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

80

Most important regulator of blood calcium

Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the
blood

81

Functions of testosterone

Stimulates the male pattern of development

Contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis

Stimulates protein synthesis

82

Typical changes produced by a hormonal stimulus

A change in membrane potential

The stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis

An increase in enzymatic activity

83

Discuss PID

PID can cause scarring of the narrow uterine tubes and of the ovaries, resulting in sterility. Scarring and closure of the uterine tubes, which have an internal diameter as small as the width of a human hair in some regions, is one of the major causes of female infertility. Occurs when infection spreads to the peritoneal cavity, causing severe inflammation.

84

Discuss Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) results from either hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin. When insulin is absent, the result is type 1 diabetes mellitus. The three cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus are polyuria (excess urine), polydipsia (excess thirst), and polyphagia (excess hunger).