OT Nerves Chapter 1 pg 5-6

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1

Neuron

basic cellular units of the nervous system

2

Neuron

a cell which is specialized to carry an electrical signal known as a nerve impulse.

3

Neuron

One of two major functional properties
Irritability – the ability to respond to a stimuli and convert it to a nerve impulse

4

Neuron

One of two major functional properties Conductivity – the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles or glands.

5

Neuron

typical neuron is composed of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon.

6

Neuron

dendrites carry the nerve impulse toward the cell body; the axon carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body

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dendrites

carry the nerve impulse toward the cell body; the axon carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body

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Conductivity

the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles or glands.

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nerve impulse

an electrical signal

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Irritability –

is a respons to a stimuli and that is convert it to a nerve impulse

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Nerve Signals

consist of chemicals acting as neurotransmitters, travel from one neuron to another at synapses.

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synapse

the point of communication between two neurons.

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Functionally, a neuron can be

sensory, integrative, or motor.

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sensory neuron

carries a sensory stimulus.

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An integrative neuron integrates

sensory stimuli received from the sensory neurons.

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A motor neuron

carries a message that directs a muscle to contract.

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Myelin –

an insulating substance composed of lipids and proteins.

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Myelin –

It conducts nerve signals.

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Myelin –

The more an axon has, the faster its conduction rate.

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Glia cells

protect support and nourish neurons,

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Glia cells

maintain nerve homeostasis,

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Glia cells

protect against infection and injury,

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Electrical messages

carried on the axon from the cell body to synaptic region.
.

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Voltage

across the neuron membrane becomes positive.

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All stimuli

depolarize the axon membrane to a critical voltage, or threshold that opens sodium channels and generates an action potential.
• In unmyelinated axons, increased conduction velocity is achieved by increasing the diameter of the axon

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Generated current

spreads from the active to the inactive regions.

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unmyelinated axons,

increased conduction velocity is achieved by increasing the diameter of the axon