BIO Test 3 Review

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1

What happens when capsular hydrostatic pressure increases above normal

Net filtration decreases

2

What drains the glomerulus

Efferent arteriole

3

The function of angiotensin

Constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

4

What hormone is responsible for facultative water reabsorption

ADH

5

What do the macula densa cells respond to

Changes in solute content of the filtrate

6

What are components of the filtration membrane

Glomerular endothelium

Podocytes

Basement membrane

7

What is the salt-monitoring part of the nephron

Macula densa

8

Essential role of large intestine bacteria

Synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

9

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves which hormone

Cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

10

To establish the medullary osmotic gradient, the permeability of what is important

loop of Henle

11

What cells produce intrinsic factor?

Parietal cells of the stomach

12

The 4 layers of the GI canal, in order

Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

13

What makes up the lamina propria

Layer of areolar connective tissue that attaches the epithelium and contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodules and nerves

14

What triggers the initiation of micturition

Stretching of the bladder wall

15

Is creatinine absorbed by the PCT

No

16

Why is fatty tissue around the kidneys important?

Stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

17

Function of the lamina propria

Rich in macrophages and lymphoid cells and, thus, has a function in immune response

18

The fluid in Bowman’s capsule is similar to plasma except

It does not contain a significant amount of plasma protein

19

Most direct function of JG apparatus

Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

20

What vessels make up the splanchnic circulation

Arterial supply: branches of the celiac trunk that serve the spleen/liver/stomach, mesenteric arteries that serve the small/large intestine

Hepatic portal circulation: collects nutrient-rich venous blood draining from the digestive viscera and delivers it to the liver

21

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor to be absorbed

B12

22

Number of permanent teeth

32

23

The urinary bladder is composed of what type of epithelium

Transitional

24

Where are the mechanical and chemical receptors for digestion located

In the walls of the tract organs

25

Structures associated with the renal corpuscle

Podocyte

Fenestrated capillary

Efferent arteriole

26

What controls most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules

Hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

27

What is the function of mesentery

A fold of tissue that attaches organs to the body wall

28

Sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus

Pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros

29

Solutes contained in saliva

Electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

30

What is diabetes insipidus

A rare form of diabetes caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin, which regulates kidney function

31

Function of hepatic portal circulation

Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

32

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules

Osmosis

33

What accomplishes reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate

Secondary active transport

34

What is tubular reabsorption

A selective process that reclaims materials from tubular fluid and returns them to the bloodstream

35

Characteristics of the large intestine

No villi

External muscular bands called teniae coli

Has haustra

36

Parietal cells produce what

Intrinsic factor

37

What makes up the renal corpuscle

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

38

What are some GFR control methods

Renal autoregulation

Neural regulation

Hormonal regulation

39

What hormone aids in the digestion of complex carbohydrates

Amylase

40

Function of hepatocytes

Picking up and processing nutrients from the portal blood

Storing some vitamins

Detoxifying poisons

41

What is hydrolysis

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule

42

What happens to fluid in the descending loop of Henle

Becomes more concentrated

43

Kidney function in older adult

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy

44

Where is the lingual frenulum located

Tongue

45

Kidneys develop from what structures

Urogenital ridges

46

Function of goblet cells

Produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

47

Paneth cells secrete what

Enzymes that kill bacteria

48

What increases the absorptive ability of the small intestine

The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine

49

What stimulates the kidneys to produce renin

Decrease in blood pressure

50

What does the clearance value of zero for glucose mean

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed

51

What is catabolism

Chemical digestion reducing large complex molecules to simpler compounds

52

Parts of JG complex

Granular cells

Macula densa

Mesangial cells

53

Chief cells produce what

Pepsinogen

54

Where is protein digestion initiated

Stomach

55

What is bile and where is it normally found

Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion

Bile functions to emulsify fats

Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids

56

Eating a meal high in fat causes the gallbladder to do what

Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum

57

If the liver is damaged, digestion of what is most affected

Lipids

58

Where are iron and calcium mainly absorbed

Duodenum

59

What stomach secretion is needed for production of hemoglobin

Intrinsic factor

60

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of intestinal villi

Active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

61

What enzymes splits short chain triglycerides

Lipase

62

What provides nervous control of gastric secretions

Vagus nerve and enteric plexus

63

How does the specific gravity of urine compare to water

Urine's specific gravity is slightly higher than that of water

64

Which immunoglobulin prevents pathogens in the large intestine from going beyond the mucosa

IgA

65

Important items for reabsorption of a substance in the nephron

Within PCT: reabsorbtion occurs when pH needs to be maintained and biocarbonate ions are reabsorbed back into the blood stream

loop of Henle: allows for the reabsorbtion of water through osmosis whereas the ascending limb allows for the passive and active transport of salts such as sodium to move out of the tubules and be reabsorbed

DCT: highly selective reabsorption takes place allowing for small adjustments to be made especially between the presence of Potassium and Sodium

66

What cells in the kidney respond to changes in solute content

Macula densa

67

Functions of the nephron loop

Form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

68

Increase in permeability of cells in the collecting tubule is due to increase in what hormone

ADH

69

Are the ureters capable of peristalsis

Yes

70

What artery lies between the cortex and medulla

Arcuate

71

The outermost layer of the small intestine

Serosa

72

Where is chyme created

Stomach

73

What factor favors filtrate formation at the glomerulus

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

74

Functions of the urinary system

Helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood

Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones

Maintains blood osmolarity

75

How does alcohol act as a diuretic

It inhibits ADH secretion from the posterior pituitary and results in increased urine volume

76

What is the function of enamel on the teeth

Hard outer layer of crown, hardest substance in the body

77

An enzyme specific for proteins

Trypsin

78

The cephalic phase in gastric digestion occurs when

Before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

79

Most important hormones in regulating electrolyte reabsorption and secretion

Angiotensin II and aldosterone

80

Components of saliva

Lysozyme
A cyanide compound
Defensins

81

What is chemical digestion

The physiological process by which food = nutrient molecules have their molecular structure modified by interacting with substances secreted by various digestive glands and tissues

82

What type of epithelium is found in the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule

Simple squamous epithelium

83

Hormones which inhibit gastric secretion

Secretin

84

What are peristaltic waves

Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

85

What does the submucosal layer of the digestive tube contain

Blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers

86

What is glomerular hydrostatic pressure

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane

87

What papillae contain taste buds

Fungiform and circumvallate

88

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys

Nephron

89

Explain a gastric ulcer

Sore in the lining of stomach or duodenum

Pain starts between meals, during the night, briefly stops if antacids are taken, lasts for minutes or hours, comes and goes for days or weeks

Acids that help digest food damage duodenum

Helicobacter pylori or overuse of NSAIDS are most common causes

Endoscopy or X-Ray to diagnose

Must be treated or will get worse. Antibiotics to kill H. pylori or medication to reduce acids will be prescribed

90

Explain cystitis

Condition in which the mucous membrane lining the bladder becomes swollen and bleeding occurs

Escherichia coli are normal residents of the digestive tract and generally cause no problems there, but these bacteria account for 80% of all urinary tract infections

Can be brought about by poor hygiene or STD

Can spread to kidneys if allowed to worsen