The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism is know as .
refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances. reactions usually release energy.
refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex molecules. Anabolism reactions reactions usually release energy.
The energy of reactions is used to drive reactions.
The energy for chemical reactions is stored in .
are proteins, produced by living cells, that catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.
Generally globular proteins with characteristic three-dimensional shapes are .
are efficient, can operate at relatively low temperatures, and are subject to various cellular controls. .
________ names usually end in -ase.
The six classes of are defined on the basis of the types of reactions they catalyze.
Most enzymes are holoenzymes, consisting of a protein portion ( ) and a non protein portion ( ).
The can be a metal ion (iron, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc calcium, or cobalt) or a complex organic molecule known as a _________________ (NAD+,NADP+, FMN, FAD, or coenzyme A).
When an enzyme and a substrate combine, the substrate is ________________, and the enzyme is __________________.
Enzymes are characterized by _________________ , which is a function of their active sites.
At high temperatures, enzymes undergo________________ and lose their catalytic properties; at low temperatures the reaction rate _____________________.
The pH at which enzymatic activity is maximal is known as the _____________ pH.
Enzymatic activity _____________ as the substrate concentration increases until the enzymes are _______________.