Chapter 5

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Microbiology
Chapter 5
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1

The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism is know as .

metabolism .

2

refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances. reactions usually release energy.

Catabolism, Catabolic

3

refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex molecules. Anabolism reactions reactions usually release energy.

Anabolism

4

The energy of reactions is used to drive reactions.

catabolic, anabolic

5

The energy for chemical reactions is stored in .

ATP

6

are proteins, produced by living cells, that catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.

Generally globular proteins with characteristic three-dimensional shapes are .

are efficient, can operate at relatively low temperatures, and are subject to various cellular controls. .

Enzymes

7

________ names usually end in -ase.

The six classes of are defined on the basis of the types of reactions they catalyze.

Enzyme

Enzymes

8

Most enzymes are holoenzymes, consisting of a protein portion ( ) and a non protein portion ( ).

apoenzyme, cofactor

9

The can be a metal ion (iron, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc calcium, or cobalt) or a complex organic molecule known as a _________________ (NAD+,NADP+, FMN, FAD, or coenzyme A).

cofactor, coenzyme

10

When an enzyme and a substrate combine, the substrate is ________________, and the enzyme is __________________.

transformed, recovered

11

Enzymes are characterized by _________________ , which is a function of their active sites.

specificity

12

At high temperatures, enzymes undergo________________ and lose their catalytic properties; at low temperatures the reaction rate _____________________.

denaturation, decreases

13

The pH at which enzymatic activity is maximal is known as the _____________ pH.

optimum

14

Enzymatic activity _____________ as the substrate concentration increases until the enzymes are _______________.

increases,saturated