Evolution Test 3

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created 5 years ago by Marissa_Marecle
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1

Morphospecies

phenotypic differences in species used to define the species (morpho=form)

2

Phylogenetic species

traits can distinguish populations based on phylogeny if the populations have been isolated in terms of gene flow and have diverged

species are named on the basis of statistically significant differences in traits

3

Biological species

if a population does not hybridize regularly in nature or offspring do not survive they are considered reproductively isolated

4

Cryptic species

identified using song or other "coded" non physical characteristic

5

Three stages of speciation

  1. isolation
  2. divergence of traits
  3. reproductive isolation
6

Allopatric vs. sympatric speciation

Allopatric speciation occurs when there is a physical barrier between the two species such as the panama canal rising up. Sympatric speciation is when two species share a geographical area but are reproductively isolated because of polyploidy.

7

dispersal

a founding event: when a part of the group travels to a new area

8

vicariance

an existing area is split by a physical barrier such as a mountain

9

Panama Canal: support for vicariance

The canal closed and a land bridge formed. They sampled snapping shrimp on either side of the canal that used to live together. The shrimp lived on the levels in the water. Shrimp on either side that lived on the deepest level had a higher genetic divergence than ones living higher up because the canal closed from the bottom up. Species on either side were closer in genetics to the species living on the other side than to species on their own side.

10

LUCA

The last common ancestor which is not the very first living thing (noah not adam)

11

How RNA world solved the chicken and the egg problem because it contains genetic material yet is also a catalyst for its own replication in the form of ribozomes

because it contains genetic material yet is also a catalyst for its own replication in the form of ribozomes

Problems:

  1. How could RNA be created in an abiotic environment
  2. How could RNA evolve into DNA
12

Is RNA the origin of life?

Probably not but it did proceed complex life but was not the first organisms to :live"

13

The Murchison Meteorite

The materials for life could have come from starts because they found many amino acids on a meteorite that fell over Australia

14

Miller Experiment

He boiled water and ran the vapor through a mixture of gases believed to make up the atmosphere. Some organic molecules were created. This is being questioned because the gases he used were not the ones that really made up our atmosphere at the time.

Was not a reducing atmosphere

15

Oparian-Haldane Model

All the ingredients to create life were found on earth.

  1. Formation of building blocks (nucleotides or amino acids)
  2. polymerization to form marcomolecules
  3. marcomolecules would have directed formation of other structures
16

First complex organism: 540 million years ago

540 million years ago