Chapter 7: Axial Skeleton

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1

On the basis of shape, bones are grouped into four principal kinds

  • Long
  • Short
  • Flat
  • Irregular
2

Two additional types are classified by location

  • Sufral (Wormian) bones
  • Sesamoid bones
3

Sufral (Wormian) bones are found

Between sutures of certain cranial bones

4

Sesamoid bones develop

In tendons or ligaments

5

Surface markings

Structural features visible on their surface

6

Each marking is structure for a specific funtion

  • Joint formation
  • Muscle attachment
  • Passage of nerve and blood vessels
7

Bone markings are classified as

  • Depressions and openings
  • Processes that form joints
  • Processes to which tendons ligaments, and other connective tissues atach
8

Terms that describe markings include

  • Fissure
  • Foramen
  • Meatus
  • Fossa
  • Process
  • Condyle
  • Head
  • Facet
  • Tuberosity
  • Crest
  • Spine
9

The appendicular skeleton compromises one of the two majordivisions of the skeletal system and consist of

  • 126 bones

Upper limb: (30)

  • Clavicle (2)
  • Scapula (2)
  • Radius (2)
  • Carpals (7)
  • Metacarpals (5)
  • Phalanges (14)

Lower Limbs (30)

  • Hip (2
  • Coxyl (2)
  • Femur (2)
  • Fibula (2)
  • Tibia (2)
  • Patella (2)
  • Tarsals (7)
  • Metatarsals (5)
  • Phalanges (14)
10

The most frequently fractured bone in the body

Clavicles

11

The most frequently dislocated bone in the body

Humerus

12

The longest, largest bone in the upper extremities

Humerus

13

Pectoral (shoulder) and pelvic (hip) girdles

Attach themselves to the rest of the skeleton

14

The axial skeleton consists of

Bones arranged along the longitudinal axis of the body

15

The parts of the axial skeleton are composed of

80 bones

  • Skull (22)
  • Hyoid bone
  • Auscles (3 on right, 3 on left)
  • Vertebral column (26)
  • Sternum
  • Ribs (24)
16

Skull consists of

  • 22 bones
  • Cranial bones (cranium)
  • Facial bones (face)
17

Sutures

Immovable joints found only between skull bones

18

Examples of sutures

  • Coronal
  • Sagittal
  • Lamboid
  • Squamous
19

Frontanels

Dense connective tissue membrane-filled spaces between cranial bones of fetuses and infants. They remain unossified at birth but close early in a child's life

20

The major fontanels

  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Anterolaterals
  • Posterolaterals
21

Fontanels two major functions

  • They enable the fetal skull to modify its size and shape as it passes through the birth canal
  • They permit rapid growth of the brain during infancy
22

Cranial bones

  • Frontal
  • Parietal (2)
  • Temporal (2)
  • Occipital
  • Sphenoid
  • Ethmoid
  • And cranial fossae features
23

"Black eye"

Results from accumulation of fluid and blood in the upper eyelid following a blow to the relatively sharp supraorbital margin (brow line)

24

Three levels of cranial fossae

Depressions in the skull bone that accomodate brain, vessel, and nerve structures

  • Anterior fossa
  • Middle fossa
  • Posterior fossa
25

Anterior fossa

Includes areas of the frontal, ethmoid, and phenoid bones; holds the frontal lobes over the top of the orbits and nasal cavity

26

Middle fossa

Contains parts of the sphenoid, temporal, and parietal bones; the temporal lobes of the brain reside in this hollow

27

Posterior fossa

Made of the temporal and occipital bones; these keep expansions hold the cerebellum and lower end of the brain stem

28

14 facial bones

  • Nasal (2)
  • Maxilla (2)
  • Zygomatic (2)
  • Mandible
  • Lacrimal (2)
  • Palatine (2)
  • Inferior nasal conchae (2)
  • Vomer
29

Paranasal sinuses

  • Cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
  • They are lined by mucous membrane and also serve to lighten the skull and serve as resonating chamber for speech
  • Cranial bones containing the sinuses are the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae
30

Sinusitis

When membranes of the paranasal sinuses become inflamed due to infection or allergy. Blockage of the outlets into the nasal cavity may cause painful buildup of pressure in the sinuses

31

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome

Dysfuntion to varying degrees of the temporomandubular joint (between upper and lower jaws)

32

Causes of Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome

Improperly aligned teeth, grinding or clenching the teeth, trauma to the jaw, or arthritis and the treatment is similarly variable

33

Deviated nasal septum (DNS)

Lateral deflection of the septum from the midline, usually resulting from improper fusion of septal bones and cartilage

34

The orbis (eye sockets)

Formed by seven bones of the skull; a number of structures pass through openings of the orbit

35

The foramina of the skull bones

Provides passages for nerves and blood vessels

36

The hyoid bone

U-shaped bone, unique because it articulates with no other bone of the body; it supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its mmuscles as well as for some neck muscles and muscles of the pharynx

37

The vertebral column is composed of

  • 26 bones, after fusion, distributed into five regions (33 before fusion)
38

The five regions of the vertebral column

  • Cervical vertebrae (7)
  • Thoracic vertebrae (12)
  • Lumbar vertebrae (5)
  • Sacrum (5, fused)
  • Coccyx (4, fused)
39

Between adjacent vertebrae, from the first cervical (atlas) to the sacrum that forms strong joints, permit various movements of the vertebral column, and absorb vertical shock

Intervertebral discs

40

The four normal curves of the vertebral column

  • Two primary - Thoracic and sacral
  • Two secondary - Cervical and lumbar

Gives strength, support, and balance

41

The thoracic and sacral curves

Remnants of the single anteriorly concave curve of the fetus

42

The cervical and lumbar curves

Anteriorly convex; they develop as the child begins to hold the head up and assumes an upright posture, respectively

43

The vertebrae are similar in structure consisting

  • Body (centrum)
  • Vertebral (neural) arch
  • Seven processes
44

Vertebrae in the different regions of the column vary in

  • Size
  • Shape
  • Detail
45

Whiplash injuries result from

Traumatic contact between the dens of the axis bone (the second cervical vertebrae, or C2) and the spinal cord or medulla oblongata of the brain

46

Epidural anesthesia

Frequently used during labor (in childbirth), causes numbness in the regions innervated by the sacral and coccygeal nerves (approximately from the wait to the knees)

47

The term thorax refers to

The entire chest; the thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum, ribs and costal cartilages, and bodies of the thoracic vertebrae

48

The thoracic cage

Protects vital organs in the chest area and uper abdomen and provides support for the soulder girdle and upper extremeties

49

Sternal puncture

Used to aspirate red bone marrow for biopsy

50

Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus into an adjacent vertebral body

Herniated (slipped) disc

51

Herniated discs causes

  • Exerted pressure on spinal nerves
  • Parastethic
  • Pain
52

An exxageration of normal curve in the vertebral column

Abnormal curves in the spine

53

Common abnormal curves (curvatures) include

  • Scoliosus (lateral curvature, usually in the thoracic region)
  • Excessive Kyphosis (exaggerated thoracic curve)
  • Excessive Lordosis (exaggerated lumbar curve)
54

Spina bifida

  • Not genetic
  • Failure of fusion of one or more vertebral laminae to unite at the mid-line
  • Involve one or several vertebrae
  • Nervous tissue may or may not protrude through the skin
55
  • Paralysis
  • Mental retardation

Usually occurs when multiple laminas are missing