Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 2: Chemical Organization Flashcards


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1

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

2

Matter exists as

Solid, liquid, or gas

3

Mass

The amount of matter a substance contains

4

Weight

Force of gravity acting on a mass

5

Energy

The capacity to do work (put mass into motion)

6

Two types of energy is

Potential and kinetic energy

7

Potential energy

Inactive or stored energy

8

Kinetic energy

Energy of motion

9

Forms of energy include

Radiant, electrical, heat, chemical, and mechanical

10

Mass and energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but

One can be converted into the other

11

All forms of matter are composed of

Chemical elements

12

Elements are given letter abbreviations called

Chemical symbols

13

Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up ___ of body weight

96%

14

Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, and Phosphorus make up ___ of total body weight

98.5%

15

Units of matter of all chemical elements are called

Atoms

16

Atoms consist of

A nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons (nucleons) and electrons that move about the nucleus in energy levels

17

Different atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutron are called

Isotopes

18

Certain isotopes are unstable and may emit radiation that can be monitored with radiation detectors are called

Radioisotopes

19

Radioisotopes can be used to

Study both the structure and function of particular tissues

20

Chemical reaction occurs when

Atoms combine or break apart from other atoms

21

Electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom, tending to spend of the time in specific atomic regions called

Shells

22

Each shell can hold a certain maximum number of electrons; the outermost shell is called

Valence shell

23

To achieve stability, atoms tend to either empty their valence shell or fill it to the maximum extent by

  • Giving up, accepting, or sharing electrons with other atoms in the simplest manner possible
  • Atoms that have completely filled outer shells are called inert elements and do not participate in chemical reactions
  • Atoms with incompletely filled outer shells tend to combine with each other in chemical reactions
24

Two or more atoms combine in a chemical reaction to form a

Molecule

25

Compound

Substance that can be broken down into two or more different elements by chemical means

26

The atoms of a molecule are held together by forces of attraction called

Chemical Bonds

27

Ionic bond

Outer-energy-level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds

28

Cations

Positively charged ions that have given up one or more electrons

Ex. They are electron donor

29

Anions

Negatively charged ions that have picked up one or more electrons that another atom as lost

Ex. They are electron acceptors

30

Covalent bond

There is sharing of pairs of outer-energy-level electrons

31

Single, double, or triple covalent bonds are formed by

Sharing one, two, or three pairs of electrons

32

Covalent bonds may be

Nonpolar or polar

33

Hydrogen bonds

Two other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) associate with a hydrogen atom

34

Factors that determine if a chemical (metabolic) reaction

  • Concentration of particles
  • The speed at which particles are traveling (temperature and size)
  • Activation energy
  • Proper orientation of the colliding particles
35

Synthesis reactions involve

The combination of reactants to produce a new molecule; anabolism reaction (anabolism)

36

Anabolism

Bonds are formed

37

Decomposition reactions

Substance break down into other substances; catabolic reactions (catabolism)

38

Exchange reactions involve

The replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms

39

In reversible reactions

End products can revert to the original combining molecules

40

In oxidation-reduction reactions

Electrons are taken from the atom being oxidized by the atom being reduced

41

Exergonic reaction

One in which the bond being broken has more energy than the one formed so that extra energy is released, usually as heat

42

Endergonic reaction

The opposite of exergonic; it requires energy, usually from a molecule called ATP, to form a bond, as in bonding amino acid molecules together to form proteins

43

Inorganic substances

Usually lack carbon and are small molecules

44

Organic substances

Always contains carbon and hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds

45

When molecules or inorganic acids, bases, or salts dissolve in water, they undergo

Ionization or dissociation

46

Acids

Ionize into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) and one or more anions

47

Anions

Negative ions

48

Bases

Dissociate into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) and one or more cations

49

Cations

Positive ions

50

Water

The most abundant substance in the body

51

Salt, when dissolved in water

Dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is H+ or OH-

52

Solution consists of

A solute dissolved in a solvent

53

Standard unit that expresses the number of molecules of solute in a liter of solution is called

Molarity = moles/liters

54

Mole

Name for the number of atoms in an atomic weight of that element, or the number of molecules in a molecular weight of that type of molecule

55

The properties that make water a vital compound living systems

  • An excellent solvent and suspending medium
  • Chemical reactions
  • it absorbs and releases heat very slowly; it has a high heat capacity
  • It requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas; it has a high heat capacity
  • It requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas; its heat of vaporization is considered to be high
  • It serves as a lubricant
56

Buffer systems

Usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-