Microbiology

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Microbiology
Chapter 5
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1

Metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism

2

Catabolism

chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler substances; they release energy

3

Anabolism

chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex molecules; they require energy

4

ATP

stores energy for chemical reactions

5

Enzymes

catalyze chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy; they have three-dimensional shape

6

Enzymes( holoenzymes)

Protein portion - apoenzyme, nonprotein - cofactor

7

Cofactor

metal ion( Iron, Copper, Magnesium, Manganeze, Zinc, Calcium, or cobalt)

8

Coenzyme

complex organic molecule NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD, coenzyme A

9

Enzymatic activity

Temperature: high - denaturation; low - decrease rate

pH: best is optimal ph 6.5-7.5

substrate concentration: if increased - activity increases

10

Competitive inhibitors

compete with normal substrate for the active site of the enzyme

11

Oxidation

removal of one or more electrons from a substrate. Ex. : (H+)

12

Reduction

gaining of one or more electrons

NAD+ - oxidized form

NADH - reduced form

13

Metabolic pathways

series of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions

14

Glucose

the most commonly used carbohydrate; it is reduced molecule

1 molecule - Produces 2ATP and 2NADH

15

Respiration vs Fermentaion

Respiration: complete breakdown of glucose

Fermentation: partial breakdown of glucose

16

Glycolysis

the most common pathway of the oxidation of glucose

end product - pyruvic acid

17

Aerobic respiration

O2 final electron acceptor

18

Anaerobic respiration

inorganic molecule is the final acceptor

19

Electron Transport Chain ETC

contains of carriers: flavoproteins, cytochromes, ubiquinones

20

Electron carriers location

Prokaryotes: in the plasma membrane

Eukaryotes: in the inner mitochondrial membrane

21

ATP production

Aerobic prokaryotes: 38 ATP (from complete oxidation of one glucose molecule in glycolysis, Krebs cycle and ETC)

Eukaryotes: 36 ATP (complete oxidation of one glucose molecule)

22

Fermenation

does not require O2

electron acceptor - organic molecule

23

Calvin-Benzon cycle

light-independent

CO2 used to synthesize sugars

24

Phototrophs vs Chemotrophs

Phototrophs: oxidation-reduction reactions; (heatero - use light and organic compound)

Chemotrophs: use chemical energy; (autotrophs - CO2 as carbon source, hetero - use organic molecules and their carbon source)

25

Cyanobacteria

Oxygenic phototrophs

26

Green bacteria and purple bacteria

Anoxygenic phototrophs