Modern Chemistry: Chemistry Vocabulary for Pre-AP final exam Flashcards


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Modern Chemistry
Chapters 1-9, 11, 12, 15
updated 7 years ago by Katthetwin
Grade levels:
10th grade
Subjects:
chemistry
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1

Chemistry

the study of composition structure and properties of matter the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes

2

Chemical

any substance that has a definite composition

3

Mass

measure of the amount of matter

4

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

5

Atom

smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that substance

6

Element

life substance that cannot be broken down into simpler stable substances and is made of one type of atom

7

Compound

substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances

8

Extensive property

depend on the amount of matter that is present

9

Intensive properties

do not depend on the amount of matter present

10

Physical property

a characteristic that can be observed or measures w/o changing the identity of the substance

11

Physical change

change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance

12

Change of state

a physical change of a substance from one state to another

13

Solid

has definite volume and shape

14

Liquid

has definite volume and indefinite shape

15

Gas

no definite volume and no definite shape

16

Chemical property

- substances ability to undergo changes that transform into different substances

17

Group

vertical columns on the periodic table

18

Family

vertical columns

19

Period

horizontal rows

20

Metal

good electrical/ heat conductor

21

Nonmetal

poor conductor

22

Metalloid

holds both characteristics of metals and nonmetals

23

Scientific method

logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data

24

System

a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation

25

Hypothesis

testable statement

26

SI Units

Le Systeme International d’Unites, are defined in terms of standards of measurement it includes

length l meter m

Mass m kilogram kg

Time t second s

Temperature T kelvin k

Amount of Substance n mole mol

27

Weight

measure of the gravitational pull on matter

28

Derived units

card image

Combination of the quantities of SI units

29

Volume

the amount of space occupied by an object

30

Conversion factor

ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other

31

Dimensional analysis

mathematical technique that allowing you to use units to solve problems involving measurements = quantity sought= quantity given x conversion factor

32

Accuracy

refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the same quantity made in the same way. (Where you want the numbers to end up)

33

Precision

refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way (same place)

34

Percentage error

calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value. Dividing the difference by the accepted value, then multiplying by 100

35

Significant figures

in a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated

36

Scientific notation

numbers are written in the form M x 10 n, where the factor M is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number

37

Law of conservation of mass-

states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes

38

Law of definite proportions

the fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound

39

Law of multiple proportions

two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers

40

Atom

smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element

41

Atomic number

(Z) of an element is the number of orbitals of each atom of that element

42

Isotopes

atoms of the same element that have different masses

43

Mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope

44

Nuclide

general term for a specific isotope of an element

45

Atomic mass unit

(1 amu) is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom the atomic mass of any atom is determined by comparing it with the mass of the carbon-12 atom

46

Average atomic mass

the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element

47

Mole

SI unit for amount of substance, amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

48

Mole

abbreviated mol

49

Avogadro's number

6.022 x 1023— the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance

50

Molar mass

mass of one mole of a pure substance

51

Electron charge

negative

52

Proton charge

positive

53

Neutron charge

neutral

54

Composition of the Atomic Nucleus

card image
55

Electromagnetic radiation

form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space (visible light)

56

Electromagnetic spectrum

all forms of electromagnetic radiation form this — moves at a constant speed of 3.00 x 108 meters per second (m/s)

57

Wavelength

(λ) the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves

58

Frequency

(v) defined as the number of waves that passes a given point in a specific time, usually one second — waves/second speed of light= wavelength x frequency

59

Quantum

of energy is the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom— E=hv e=energy in joules h= 6.6261 x 10-34 J•s

60

Photon

particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy

61

Ground state

the lowest energy state of an atom

62

Excited state

the state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than its ground state

63

Electron configuration

the arrangement of electrons in an atom

64

Aufbau principle

electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it

65

Noble gas configuration

refers to an outer main energy level occupied in most cases by 8 electrons

66

Noble gas

group 18 elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon) not very reactive

67

Heinsenberg Uncertainty Principle

states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and the velocity of an election or any other particle

68

Hunds Rule

orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin state

69

Pauli Exclusion Principle

no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers

70

Quantum theory

describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles

71

Orbital

three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron

72

Periodic law

the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

73

Atomic radius

one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together

74

Ion

atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge

75

Ionization energy (IE)

energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element

76

Electron affinity

energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neural atom

77

Cation

positive ion

78

Anion

negative ion

79

Valence electrons

the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds

80

Electronegativity

measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound

81

Chemical Bond

mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together

82

Ionic bonds

chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions

83

Covalent bonds

results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms

84

Polar

have uneven distribution of charge

85

Polar-covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded

86

Nonpolar covalent bond

covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms

87

Molecule

neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds

88

Chemical formula

indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts

89

Molecular formula

shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound

90

Electron-dot notation

an electron- configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol

91

Lewis- structure

formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons

92

Structural formula

indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule

93

Single bond

covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

94

Double bond

covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

95

Triple bond

covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

96

Polyatomic ion

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

97

Monatomic ion

ions formed from a single atom

98

Binary compound

compounds composed of two elements

99

Oxidation number

made in order to indicate the general distribution of electrons around the bonded atoms in a molecular compound or a polyatomic ion also called oxidation states are assigned to the atoms composing the compound or ion

100

Formula mass

of any molecule, formula unit, or ion is the sum of the average atomic masses of all atoms represented in its formula

101

Percent composition

the percentage by mass of each element in a compound

102

Empirical formula

consists of the symbols for the elements combined in a compound, with subscripts showing the smallest whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound

103

Chemical equation

represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and relative molecular or molar amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical equation

104

Precipitate

a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution

105

Coefficient

a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation

106

Word equation

an equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words

107

Synthesis reaction

aka composition reaction, two or more substances combine to form a new compound A+X--AX

108

Decomposition reaction-

single compound undergoes a reaction that produces two or more simpler substances AX—A+X

109

Single-displacement

aka replacement reaction, one element replaces a similar element in a compound A+BX—AX+B or Y+BX—BY+X

110

Double-displacement

the ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds Cl2 + 2KBr(aq)—2KCl(aq) + Br2(l)

111

Combustion

substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat 2H2(g)+O2—2H2O(g)

112

Mole ratio

conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction

113

Limiting reactant

the reactant that limits the amount of the other reactant that can combine and the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction

114

Excess reactant

the substance that is not used up completely in a reaction

115

Theoretical yield

the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant

116

Actual yield

the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction

117

Percentage yield

ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100

118

Atmospheric pressure

(atm) exactly 760 mmHg

119

Pressure

(P) the force per unit area on a surface

120

mmHg

a unit of pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 1 millimeter high at 0°C and under the acceleration of gravity and nearly equivalent to 1 torr (about 133.3 pascals)

121

Avogadro's Law

equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules V=kn

122

Standard Molar Volume of Gas

the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP, it has been found to be 22.414 10 L= 22.4 L

123

Absolute Zero

it is -273 degrees Celsius

124

Ideal Gas Constant

(R) 0.0821 L x atm/(mol x k)

125

Solution

homogenous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase

126

Soluble

capable of being dissolved

127

Solute

substance dissolved in a solution

128

Solvent

the dissolving medium

129

Suspension

if the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated it is this

130

Colloid

particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form mixtures known as colloidal dispersion or colloids

131

Electrolyte

substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current

132

Nonelectrolyte

substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current

133

Saturated solution

solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute

134

Unsaturated solution

solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions

135

Supersaturated solution

solution that contains more dissolve solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions

136

Concentration

of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution

137

Acid-base indicators

compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH

138

Titration

the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount pf a solution of unknown concentration

139

The pH scale (meter)

determines the pH of a solution by measuring the voltage between the two electrodes that are placed in the solution

140

Neutral solution

7 on the pH scale

141

Ionization constant

a constant that depends upon the equilibrium between the ions and the molecules that are not ionized in a solution or liquid—symbol K; called also dissociation constant

142

pH

negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration