Life: The Science of Biology: Chapter 22 note cards Flashcards

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Species A and B are sister species. Species C and D are also sister species. The lineage leading to species A and B diverged from the lineage leading to species C and D at node 1. Prior to node 1, the lineage leading to species E diverged from the lineage leading to species A, B, C, and D at node 2. Which of the following groups is notmonophyletic?
A.Species A and B
B.Species C and D
C.Species A, B, and C
D.Species A, B, C, and D
E.All of these groups are monophyletic.

C.Species A, B, and C


Two clades of beetles split off from a node more recently than these clades diverged from other clades. Thus, these clades are _______ clades.



The scientific name of the common loon is Gavia immer. Gavia is the name of the _______ to which this bird belongs.



A derived trait is one that

differs from its ancestral form.


Binomial nomenclature means that species are called

by their genus name followed by their species name.


Which circumstances would most likely lead biologists to use parsimony methods over maximum likelihood methods?

They are dealing with DNA sequence data.


Biologists studying a clade of birds are interested in whether a morphological feature of this clade is ancestral or derived. Which of the following approaches would best address this question?

Use of the fossil record, especially near the root of the tree


A _______ is any group of organisms we name, whereas a _______ is a _______ that consists of all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor.

taxon; clade; taxon


A taxon of flies can be removed from a phylogenetic tree by a single cut. Thus, this taxon is



Four different phylogenetic trees of a group of salamanders have been proposed. Trees A and B each require 12 homoplasies, but tree A requires 14 synapomorphies and tree B requires 13 synapomorphies. Tree C requires 15 homoplasies and 13 synapomorphies. Finally, tree D requires 10 homoplasies and 15 synapomorphies. According to the principle of parsimony, which tree (or trees) is the most accurate?

Tree D


Species A and species B have long wings, whereas species C has short wings. Which of the following pieces of evidence would best support the hypothesis that long wings are a synapomorphy?

Fossil evidence showing that the common ancestor of species A, B, and C had short wings


The _______ of a phylogenetic tree represents the common ancestor, the _______ represent places where lineages diverge, and the _______ axis represents time. (Assume that the tree is oriented as depicted in the textbook).

root; nodes; horizontal


In its application to phylogenetics, parsimony is a method that

helps distinguish synapomorphies from homoplasies.


Which taxonomic category is the next largest after order?



Genes that code for enzymes used in central metabolism generally evolve very slowly. Thus, these genes would most likely be used to study



The common ancestor of humans and the other great apes walked on all fours, while humans are bipeds. Bipedalism is thus a(n) _______ trait.



Which of the following statements describes a purpose for which biologists use phylogenetic trees?



A group of biologists primarily studying the evolutionary relationships of crickets also includes closely related grasshoppers to help determine which traits are ancestral in crickets. The crickets are the



HIV entered the human population from

chimpanzees only.


The complete evolutionary history of life is known as