Anatomy & Physiology Introduction Flashcards


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1

The study of the structure of the human body.

Anatomy.

2

The study of the function of how organisms perform vital activities.

Physiology.

3

The front or before.

Anterior or ventral; e.g. the naval is on the anterior surface of the trunk.

4

The back or behind.

Posterior or dorsal; e.g. the should is located posterior to the rib cage.

5

Above or at a higher level (toward the head).

Superior; e.g. the eyes are superior to the nose.

6

Below or at a lower level.

Inferior; e.g. The knees are inferior to the hips.

7

In the middle of

Medial: the heart is medial to the lungs.

8

Away from.

Lateral e.g. the lungs are lateral to the heart.

9

Toward an attached base.

Proximal; e.g. the thigh is proximal to the foot; moving proximally from the wrist brings you to the elbow.

10

Away from an attached base

Distal; e.g. the fingers are distal to the wrist.

11

At, near, or relatively close to the body surface.

Superficial; e.g. the skin is superficial to underlying structures.

12

List four anatomical terms for describing position:

Anatomical; supine; prone; lithotomy.

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Positional term for lying face up, eyes forward, arms at sides, feet up, palms up.

Supine.

14

Positional term for standing face forward, eyes forward, feet forward, palms facing forward, legs fully extended.

Anatomical position.

15

Positional ter for lying face down, eyes down, arms at sides, feet down.

Prone.

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Positional term for lying face up with knees and hips fully extended and feet strapped to support flexed knees and hips.

Lithotomy

17

List five anatomical planes:

Coronal; median; transverse; oblique; saggital.

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Anatomical plan dividing the body into equal left and right halves.

Median or mid-saggital plane.

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Anatomical plan dividing the body into unequal left and right halves.

Saggital plane.

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Vertical anatomical plan dividing the body into front and back halves.

Coronal (frontal) plane.

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Perpendicular anatomical plane.

Transverse plane.

22

List the six anatomical relational terms.

Superior; inferior; anterior; posterior; medial; lateral.

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Term referring to the anterior surface of the upper limb and posterior surface of the lower limb.

Flexor surface.

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Term referring to the posterior surface of the upper limb and anterior surface of the lower limb.

Extensor surface.

25

List the five anatomical terms used for describing muscles:

Origin; insertion; belly; tendon; aponeurosis.

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Relatively fixed end of the muscle during natural movements.

Origin.

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Relatively mobile end of the muscle during natural movements.

Insertion.

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Fat, fleshy part of the muscle which is contractile in function.

Belly.

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Fibrous and non-contractile part of the muscle which attaches muscle to bone.

Tendon.

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Flattened tendon arising from connective tissues around the muscle.

Aponeurosis.

31

List the eight anatomical terms describing movement:

Abduction; adduction; flexion, extension, medial rotation; lateral rotation; pronation; supination.

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Movement toward the central axis.

Adduction.

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Movement away from the central axis.

Abduction.

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Movement where the angle of the joint decreased.

Flexion.

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Movement where the angle of the joint is increased.

Extension.

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Movement in the forearm where the palm is turned backwards.

Pronation

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Movement in the forearm where the palm is turned forward.

Supination.

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Imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes; aligned to body in anatomic position.

Body planes.

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Up and down plane that is a right angle to the horizon.

Vertical plane.

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Sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves.

Midsagittal plane (midline).

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Vertical plane that divides body into unequal left and right positions.

Sagittal plane.

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Vertical plane that divides that body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.

Frontal plane (Coronal plane).

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Flat crosswise plane

Horizontal plane.

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Horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions; can be at the waist or any other level across the body.

Transverse plane.

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Major structures: Bones; joints; and cartilage.

Major functions: supports and shapes the body; protects the internal organs; forms some blood cells and stores minerals.

Skeletal System.

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Major structures: Muscles; fascia; and tendons.

Major functions: holds the body erect; makes movement possible; moves body fluids and generates body heat.

Muscular System.

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Major structures: Heart; arteries; veins; capillaries; and blood.

Major functions: Blood circulates throughout the body to transport oxygen and nutrients to cells and to carry waste products to the kidneys where waste is removed to filtration.

Cardiovascular System.

48

Major structures: Lymph; lymphatic vessels; and lymph nodes.

Major functions: Removes and transports waste products from the fluid between the cells; destroys harmful substances such as pathogens and cancer cells in the lymph nodes; returns the filtered lymph to the bloodstream where it becomes plasma again.

Lymphatic System.

49

Major structures: Tonsils, spleen, thymus, skin, and specialized blood cells.

Major functions: Defends the body against invading pathogens and allergens.

Immune System.

50

Major structures: Nose; pharynx; trachea; larynx; and lungs.

Major functions: Brings oxygen into the body for transportation to the cells; removes carbon dioxide and some water waste from the body.

Respiratory System.

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Major structures: Mouth; esophagus; stomach; small intestines; large intestines; liver; and pancreas.

Major functions: Digests ingested food so it can be absorbed into the bloodstream; eliminates solid waste.

Digestive System.

52

Major structures: Kidneys; ureters; urinary bladder; and urethra.

Major functions: Filters blood to remove waste; maintains the electrolyte and fluid balance within the body.

Urinary System.

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Major structures: Nerves; brain; and spinal cord.

Major functions: Coordinates the reception of stimuli; transmits messages throughout the body.

Nervous System.

54

Major structures: Eyes and ears.

Major functions: Receive visual and auditory information and transmit it to the brain.

Special senses.

55

Major structures: Skin, sebaceous glands; and sweat glands.

Major functions: Protects the body against invasion by bacteria; aids in regulating the body temperature and water content.

Integumentary System.

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Major structures: Adrenal glands; gonads; pancreas; parathyroids; pineal; pituitary; thymus; and thyroid.

Major functions: Integrates all body functions.

Endocrine System.

57

Major structures: Male- penis and testicles; Female- ovaries, uterus, and vagina.

Major functions: Produces new life.

Reproductive System.

58

Two major: Dorsal and ventral; are spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs.

Body cavities.

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Located along the back of the body and head; contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two portions: Cranial and spinal cavity.

Dorsal cavity.

60

Located within the skull; surrounds and protects the brain.

Cranial cavity.

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Located within the spinal column; surrounds and protects the spinal cord.

Spinal cavity.

62

Located along the front of the body; contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.

Ventral cavity.

63

The process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.

Homeostasis.

64

Chest cavity or thorax; surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs.

Thoracic cavity.

65

A muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Diaphragm.

66

Contains primarily the major organs of digestion; referred to as abdomen.

Abdominal cavity.

67

Space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.

Pelvic cavity.

68

There is no physical division between the abdominal and pelvic cavities; also refers to these two cavities as a single unit.

Abdominopelvic.

69

Relating to the groin; refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen.

Inguinal.

70

The crease at the junction of the trunk with the upper end of the thigh.

Groin.

71

Located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs.

Hypochondriac regions.

72

Epigastric region

Located above the stomach.

73

Located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine.

Lumbar region.

74

Surrounds the umbilicus which is commonly known as the belly button or naval; this pit in the center of the abdominal wall marks the point where the umbilical cord was attached before birth.

Umbilical region.

75

Located in the left and right sides over the hip bones; named for the wide portion of the hip bone.

Iliac regions.

76

Hypogastric region.

Located below the stomach.

77

A multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity.

Peritoneum.

78

A thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ.

Membrane.

79

The outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall.

Parietal peritoneum.

80

The inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity.

Visceral peritoneum.

81

A fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall.

Mesentery.

82

Retroperitoneal.

Located behind the peritoneum.

83

The basic structural and functional units of the body; cells are specialized and grouped together to form tissues and organs.

Cells.

84

The study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell.

Cytology.

85

The study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease.

Genetics.

86

The specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs.

Endothelium

87

The defective development, or the congenital absence of an organ or tissue.

Aplasia.

88

Incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells.

Hypoplasia.

89

Change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other; characteristic of tumor formation in cancers.

Anaplasia.

90

Abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs.

Dysplasia.

91

Enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues.

Hyperplasia.

92

General increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues; not due to tumor formation.

Hypertrophy.

93

Malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue.

Adenocarcinoma.

94

benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue.

Adenoma.

95

Abnormal softening of a gland.

Adenomalacia.

96

Any disease condition of a gland.

Adenosis.

97

Abnormal hardening of a gland.

Adenosclerosis.

98

Surgical removal of a gland.

Adenectomy.

99

The study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function; also means a condition produced by disease.

Pathology.

100

Postmorten examination.

Autopsy.

101

The study of causes of disease.

Etiology.

102

A disease-producing microorganism such as a virus.

Pathogen.

103

A specialist in the study of outbreaks or disease within a population group.

Epidemiologist.

104

Refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area.

Endemic.

105

A sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population, group, or area.

Epidemic.

106

Refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area; possibly worldwide.

Pandemic.

107

An unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment.

Iatrogenic illness.

108

An illness without known cause.

Idiopathic disorder.

109

Disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting.

Nosocomial infection.

110

Abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth; can be caused by a developmental disorder before birth, prenatal influences, premature birth, and injuries during the birth process.

Congenital disorder.

111

Deviation from what is regarded as normal

Anomaly.

112

Congenital absence of a normal opening of the failure of a structure to be tubular.

Atresia.

113

Study of the medical problem and care of the aged; also known as gerontology.

Geriatrics.