Disease Ch 26

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created 5 years ago by hoovemaa
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Disease of the Nervous System
updated 5 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

increased intracranial pressure

brain encased in bone and meninges, no room for expansion

may be due to-cerebral edema, abnormal CSF fluid, intracranial mass

2

hydrocphalus

accumulation of excess CSF

results from:

CSF flow obstruction, overproduction or inability of arachnoid granulations to restore water of csf back into circulation

3

hydrocephalus signs and symptoms

dilated pupils

papiledema

increased BP

heachache

nausea

seizures

drowsiness

4

hdrocephalus treatment

eliminate cause-osmotic agents

reduce pressure-intracranial shunts

induce hypothermia to derease brain activity

steroid therapy

5

spina bifida

incomplete development of brain, spine, or meninges

most common neural tube defect

6

oculta spina bifida

mildest form, vertebrae malformation

7

closed spina bifida

malformation of fat around spinal cord

8

meningocele spina bifida

spinal fluid protrudes

9

myelomenigocele

spinal cord exposed through opening

10

cerebral palsy

borad term describing permanent NON-progressive motor problems

brain is injured before it reaches maturity, ie in utero or first 2 years of life

ie birth trauma, prematurity, low birth weight, falls or accidents

11

epilepsy

sudden transient alteration of brain function cause by an abrupt explosive disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons

12

provoked seizure causes

high fever

electrolyte imbalances

hypoglycemia

CNS infection or damage

13

absence/petite mal seizure

disturbance of consciousness

looks like they just space out

14

atonic seizure

loss of muscle tone

15

myclonic seizure

muscles contract

baby in high chair, arms lock out

16

tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure

muscle contraction and loss of conciousness

17

generalized convulsive status epilepticus

seizures continue without recovery between them

18

major head trauma

traumatic insult to brain

possibly produces physical, intellectual, emotional changes

focal or diffuse injury

19

types of cns trauma

direct/indirect

penetrating/blunt

open/closed

20

cerebral concussion

most common head injury

immediate loss of consciousness for seconds to minutes

usually due to blunt force and brain striking skull

21

epidural hemorrhage

between skull and dura

trauma with skull fracture

forms quickly, show signs in 2-3 hours

fatal within 24 hours

22

subdural hemorrhage

slow venous bleed

show signs in 2-3 weeks

23

subarachnoid hemorrhage

not commonly cause by trauma

arterial bleed, so fast

typically from circle of willis

blood in arachnoid space

24

traumatic brain injury

when brain collides with inside of skull

causes bleeding, bruising, and nerve fiber tearing

can be mild or serious

25

mild TBI treatment

bed rest and analgesic

26

severe TBI treatment

diuretics, antiseizure and coma inducing meds, surgery

27

cerebrovascular disease

"brain attack"

4th leading cause of death in US

28

cerebrovascualr disease causes

hypoxia-ischemia-

hemorrhagic-blood vessel ruptures

29

cerebrovascular accident

aka stroke

sudden spontaneous vascular event in brain

30

hypoxic CBV disease

low oxygen delievery to brain

global event

due to CO poisoning, drowning

31

ischemic CBV disease

low oxygen delievery to brain

in a local area, non hemorrhagic infarct

due to atherosclerosis or ebolia

32

arteries affected by CBV accident

middle cerebral artery most common-suppllies motor cortex-affects opposite side of body

vertebral arteries-supplies brain stem=much worse

33

transient ischemic attack

temporary episodes of impaired neurological activity resulting from insufficient blood flow to part of brain

aka mini stroke

may be warning for impending stroke

34

risk factors for ruptured aneurysm

hypertension

weakened vessels

35

signs and symptoms of CBV accident

embolus

thrombus

impaired speech/consciousness

hemiparesis

poor coordination and confusion

36

outcomes of CBV accidents

1/3 die within two weeks

1/3 recover with neurological deficit

1/3 recover with no deficit-embolus is dissolved/destroyed

depends on area of brain affected

37

CNS infections

infection due to bacterial invasion from blood, nearby tissue, or travel to brain in neurons (ie virus)

38

meningitis

inflammation of meninges

pia and arachnoid more likely to be inflammed

due to bacteria or virus, bacteria is worse

vaccines available

39

meningitis symptoms

sudden severe headache

stiff neck

fever

40

meningitis diagnosis

spinal tap to examine CSF

41

bacterial meningitis treatment

antibiotics

can be fatal but prognosis is good with prompt treatment

42

encephalitis

infection of brain and meninges

usually due to virus (especially herpes)

43

CNS demyelinating disease

affects white matter of brain

disease of oligodendrocytes

44

multiple sclerosis

most common neurologic disability in young people

autoimmune disease-genetic and environmental

oligodendrocytes can't make myelin-immune system attacks them

45

signs of MS

vary greatly

come and go without marning

visual, motor, sensory disturbances, numbness, fatigue, mood swings

46

MS treatment

relieve symptoms

drug therapy to slow progression

no cure

47

encelophalpathy

diseases or disorders of the brain that alter brain function/structure

catch all term

48

3 types of CNS degenerative disorders

degeneration of cortical neurons

degeneration of basal ganglia neurons

degeneration of motor neurons

49

dementia

global irreversible deterioration of cerebral cortex

not normal part of aging

lose orientation, memory, language, judgment, decision making abilities

50

alzheimers

most common form of dementia

unknown etiology

atrophy of cortical parts of frontal and temporal parts of brain

1 in 10 over 65

51

alzheimers signs and symptoms

mental impairment

loss of short term memory

can't learn new things

personality change

52

alzheimers stages

mild

moderate-language, reasoning, and recognition of family deteriorates

severe-completely dependent, unable to communicate

53

alzheimers pathophys

amyloid-beta protein forming plaques present

neurofibrilary tangles

decreased acetylcholine production

54

alzheimers risk factors

age

apolipoprotein E-component of VDL E4 increases risk

chronic hypertension

adults with head injuries are 3x more likely

55

parkinson's disease

subcortical neurodegenerative disorder-basal ganglia

unknown cause

decreased number of dopamine neurons in substantia nigra

disturbances of movement, rigidity

56

huntington's disease

autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease

characterize by chorea-involuntary gyrating movements, dementia

atrophy of cortex

repeating CAG trinucleotides

57

phases of seizures

aura

tonic

clonic

58

neoplasms of CNS

very rare 2% of cancer deaths

high mortality rate, not age associated

malignant tumors of CNS do not metastasize

59

most common types of tumors of brain cells

astrocytoma/glioblastoma

meningioma

cranial nerves-usually benign

60

astrocytoma

compresses surrounding tissue

can cause hemorrhage and necrosis

61

meningioma

arise from meninges

biologically benign

can impede on nearby tissue

62

most common cancers to metastasize to brain

lung

breast

melanoma-skin cancer

63

guilian barre syndrome

polyneuropathy-affects many nerves

autoimmune disorder-immune system attacks peripheral nerves, causes inflammation and weakening of extremities

often preceded by infection

most people recover

64

diabetic neuropathy

affects 60-70% of diabetics

due to prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia

usually involves distal nerves=decreased sensation in hands and feet

65

symptoms of diabetic neuropathy

numbness, tingling

pain

ulcers on feet

66

headache

diffuse pain occuring in any portion of the head

primary-tension, migraine, cluster-cluster most severe

secondary-underlying structural problems

result of vasodilation and pressing on pressure receptors

no pain receptors in brain

67

migraine

recurrent intense throbbing headache

nausea

women twice as often as men

hereditary indications

some have aura or sensory disturbances