Disease Ch 27 Part 2

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created 5 years ago by hoovemaa
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disorders of skeletal muscle
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1

neurogenic atrophy

dennervation

type 1 and 2 fibers affected

most common cause of diabetic neuropathy

2

disuse atrophy

type 2 muscle fibers only

lose power and stregth due to lack of muscle usage

3

myalgia

muscle pain

4

types of paralysis

flaccid or spastic

5

flaccid paralysis

reduced muscle tone- muscles don't fire enough

typically lower motor neuron

6

spastic paralysis

hypertonia-muscles fire too much

nerves hyperirritable

uncoordinated movements

7

quadriplegia (tetraplegia)

legs and arms dont work

trauma to cervical spine

8

paraplegia

legs don't work

trauma below 1st thoracic

9

hemiplegia

one side (R/L) doesnt work

10

hemiparesis

severe weakening of appendages

11

myopathy

neuromuscular disease in which muscle fibers do not function

results in muscular weakness

12

muscular dystrophies

disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers

fibers are replaced by fat and fibrous tissue

progressive weakening and wasting of skeletal muscle

13

duchenne muscular dystrophy

most common

x linked recessive-only occurs in males

not seen until about 3 years of age

14

symptoms of duchenne

slow motor development

progressive weakness

muscle wasting

enlarged calves

cant walk around 8-12 years

lifespan 12-20 years due to respiratory insufficiency (diaphragm fails)

15

myositis

muscular inflammation

may follow injury or overexertion, or secondary to autoimmune disorder

16

myositis symptoms

progressive muscle weakness

systemic inflammation

17

dermatomyositis

characteristic rash of eyelids, face, and upper chest

18

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disorder

failure of neuromuscular transmission due to blockage of acetylcholine receptors by autoantibodies

can affect any skeletal muscle-smallest motor units affected first (eyes)

19

rhabodmyoma

very rare benign tumor of striated muscle

20

rhabdomyosarcoma

most common in head, neck, and genitourinary tract

most common in children

can occur anywhere

21

sarcopenia

decrease in mscle size and strength with age

begins around 30, more evident at 50

reversible

greatest loss is in type 2 muscle fibers

contributor to frailty, falls, and decreased ADL