Disease Ch 27 Part 1

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created 5 years ago by hoovemaa
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Musculoskeletal Disorders
updated 5 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

cortex

outer layer of compact bone

2

trabeculae

inner spongy bone

3

bone marrow

space between trabeculae, fat and blood forming tissue

4

osteoblasts

build bone

5

osteoclasts

break down bone

6

osteocytes

bone cells

7

ossification

formation of bone

8

endochondral ossification

done by chondrocytes

order: lay down cartilage-lay down bone-

9

where does ossification occur?

at epiphyseal plate

10

intramembranous ossification

no cartilage phase, so no chondrocytes

11

factors influencing bone mineral density

diet

phys activity

hormones-ie calcitonin

skeletal frame size

ethnicity

age

sex

12

achondroplasia

"without bone division"

leading cause of dwarfism

mutation in fibroblast growth

chondrocytes are not laid down

13

osteogensis imperfecta

"brittle bone"

thin delicate bones that break easily

insufficient quantities of collagen

14

symptoms of osteogenesis

malformation of fingers and toes

spinal curvature

brittle teeth

blue white portion of eye (sclera)

15

talipes

congenital club foot

genetic and environmental factors

most common congenital disorder of legs

16

osteoporosis

absoute reduction of total bone mass

porous bones

age related

more common in women post menopause

17

causes of osteoporosis

primary- intrinsic to bone, decreasing estrogen levels

secondary- corisol excess (Cushings disorder), increase in PTH

18

when does peak bone mass occur?

age 30

19

risk factors for osteoporosis

age

ethnicity

genetics

skeletal frame size

derease levels of sex hormones

decrease phys act

excess intake of phosphorus, alcohol, nicotine

low levels of vit D, calcium, K+ or Mg+

20

manifestations of osteoporosis

vertebral fractures

lumbar lordosis or kyphoscoliosis

pulmonary embolism due to overt fractures of femoral neck, pelvis or spine

21

how can we identify osteoporosis?

DEXA scan, normal radiographs arent sensitive enough until 30% of bone mass is lost

22

treatments for osteoporosis

irreversible

meds to inhibit osteoclasts

estrogen mimetic

synthetic PTH

23

osteopenia

bone mineral density is lower than normal, but not at osteoporosis levels

precursor to osteoporosis

24

simple fracture

bone broken in 2 pieces

25

comminuted fracture

bone shattered in many places

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compound fracture

aka open fracture

bone punctures skin

27

pathologic fracture

fracture through a diseased area of bone

ie osteoporosis

28

fracture treatment-closed reduction

plaster cast

29

fracture treatment-open reduction

internal fixation

ie screws and pins inside bone

30

osteomyelitis

bacterial infection of bone marrow

usually from trauma or post surgery

31

osteomyelitis manifestation

signs of fever, local pain, tenderness

32

osteomyelitis diagnosis and treatment

xray shows changes in bone

antibiotics, potentially surgery

33

osteomyelitis complications

endocarditis, sepsis and spread of infection to other tissue

34

hematopoeitic tumors

tumors of bone marrow ie myeloma and leukemia

35

types of bone tumors

bone

cartilage

fibrous

36

benign cysts and tumors

osteoma

osteochondroma

37

primary malignant bone tumors

chondrosarcoma

osteosarcoma

38

chondrosarcoma

malignant tumor of cartilage

39

osteosarcoma

malignant tumor of bone forming cells

40

osteoma

looks like normal bone

slow growing asymptomatic dont become malignant

41

osteosarcoma

most common malignant bone tumor

more common in younger population and males

form at the end of long bones

can metastasize

42

osteosarcoma symptoms

bone pain

progressive enlarging mass

pathologic fractures

43

intervertebral discs

fibrocartilaginous cushions interposed between adjacent vertebrae

act as cushion and shock absorbers

44

spine order

cervical

thoracic

lumbar

sacral

45

cervical and lumbar curves arch ____

forward

46

thoracic and sacral curves arch ____

backward

47

kyphosis

humpback

curvature of thoracic vertebrae

48

osteoarthritis

most common degenerative joint disease

"wear and tear" disease

can be its own thing or caused by another disease

every eventualy has a bit of it

49

risk factors for osteoarthritis

increased age

joint trauma, long term mechanical stress

drugs

obesity

50

osteoarthritis etiology

cartilage wears thing and bone surfaces rub against each other

little inflammation until late stages

51

rheumatoid arthritis

systemic autoimmune disease, targets joints

due to T lymphocytes

associated with rheumatoid factor

not age associated

usually affects small joints of hands and feet

52

gout

disorder of purine metabolism, too much uric acid in blood

hyperuricemia

can lead to uric acid kidney stones

crystals deposit in connective tissue, especially on big toe

53

gouty arthrities

gout crystals in synovial fluid

54

contributing factors to gout

age

males more susceptible

obesity

high intake of alcohol or red meat

genetic predisposition

"rich white mans disease"