The Endocrine system

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1

Pancreas

A mixed gland composed of both endocrine and exocrine gland cells.

Pancreatic islets-produce pancreatic hormones

alpha cells-produce glucagon (hyperglycemic)

beta cells-produce insulin (hypoglycemic)

2

Diabetes mellitus (DM)

Results from either hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin.

Absent insulin results in type 1

Present insulin, but its effects are deficient results in type 2

Overall, blood glucose levels remain high.

3

Ketoacidosis

Decrease in blood pH, and ketone bodies spill into urine (ketonuria).

Rapid deep breathing occurs (hyperpnea) to release CO2 from blood and increase blood pH.

If untreated, can disrupt heart activity and oxygen transport. Severe depression leads to coma or death.

4

Three cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus:

Polyuria - a huge urine output, decreases blood volume and causes dehydration

Polydipsia - excessive thirst

Polyphagia - excessive hunger and food consumption