Social Development: CH 10 Terms

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Social Development
Chapter 10
DEP-4095
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1

Gender-Based Belief

an idea that differentiates between males and females

2

Gender Identity

the perception of oneself as either male or female

3

Gender-role preference

desire to possess certain gender-typed characteristics

4

Gender Stability

the fact that males remain males and females remain females

5

Gender Constancy

the awareness that superficial alterations in appearance or activity do not alter gender

6

Gender Stereotype

belief that members of a culture hold about acceptable and appropriate attitudes, interests, activities, psychological traits, social relationships, occupations, and physical appearance for males and females

7

Gender Role

composite of the behaviours actually exhibited by a typical male or female in a given culture.

8

Expressive Characteristics

those aspects of a person involving nurturance and concern with feelings. More typical of females.

9

Instrumental Characteristics

those aspects of a person involving task and occupation orientation. More typical of males

10

Identification

the Freudian concept that children think of themselves as being the same as their same-sex parent

11

Cognitive-developmental theory of gender typing

Kohlberg’s theory that children use physical and behavioral clues to differentiate gender roles and to gender-type themselves. They acquire gender identity first, and then gender stability, and then gender constancy

12

Gender Schema Theory

the view that children develop schemas or naïve theories that help them organize and structure their experience related to gender roles and gender differences

13

Social Cognitive Theory of gender development

an explanation of gender role development that uses cognitive social learning principles such as observational learning, positive and negative feedback, and the concept of self-efficacy

14

Social Structural Theory of Gender Roles

an explanation of gender roles that focuses on factors such as institutionalized constraints on male and female opportunities

15

Multischematic

possessing multiple ideas about appropriate behaviours that can be displayed depending on the particular situation

16

Gender Segregation

a child’s choice to spend time with same-gender peers

17

Androgynous

possessing both feminine and masculine psychological characteristics

18

Gender Typing

the process by which children acquire the values, motives, and behaviours considered appropriate for their gender