Social Development: CH 8 Terms

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Social Development
Chapter 8
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1

Pretend Play

make-believe activity in which objects are used symbolically. Peeks at 6 years old

2

Parallel Play

interaction in which very young children are doing the same thing, side-by-side, but are not engaged with each other. Common in 2-year-olds, diminishes at age 3+.

3

Associative Play

interaction in which younger children share toys, materials, and sometimes conversation, but are not engaged in a joint action

4

Cooperative Play

interaction in which children share goals and work together to achieve them. Increases as kids age.

5

Social Comparison

the process by which people evaluate their own abilities, values, and other qualities by comparing themselves with others.

6

Sociometric Technique

a procedure for determining a child’s status within his or her peer group. Measures their acceptance and rejection.

7

Popular Children:

Children liked by very many peers, and disliked by few

8

Average Children

Children that have some friends but are not as well liked as popular kids

9

Neglected Children

Children that are socially isolated; not necessarily disliked and have few friends

10

Controversial Children

Children that are liked by many peers, but also disliked by many peers

11

Rejected Children

Children that are disliked by many, liked by very few

12

Perceived Popularity

ratings of how well a child is liked by his peers made by their teachers, parents, and other children

13

Aggressive-rejected children

Rejected children who are not accepted by their peers because of their low levels of self-control and high level of aggression. High extraversion-surgency, and very impulsive

14

Nonaggressive-rejected children

Rejected children who are excluded and tend to be anxious, withdrawn and socially unskilled. They have an Inhibited temperament, and low extraversion-surgency.

15

socially reticent children

Neglected children that watch others from afar and remain unocuppied on the sidelines

16

unsociable/socially uninterested children

Neglected children that prefer to play alone

17

Mutual Antipathy

mutual dislike between two people

18

Reputational Bias

tendency to interpret peers’ behaviour on the basis of past encounters and feelings about them.

19

Homophily

the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with others who are similar.

20

Negative Gossip

adverse or detrimental information shared about another child with a peer

21

Self-Disclosure

the honest sharing of information of a very personal nature, often with a focus on problem solving; a central means by which adolescents and others develop friendships.

22

The 5 groups-types of friendship patterns

(1) Rotation Group (2) Growth Group (3) Decline Group (4) Static Group (5) Friendless Group

23

Peer Group Network

cluster of peer acquaintances who are familiar with and interact with one another at different times for common play or task-oriented purposes

24

Dominance Hierarchy

an ordering of individuals in group from most to least dominant, or "pecking order."

25

Clique

a peer group formed on the basis of friendship

26

Crowd

a collection of people whom others have stereotyped on the basis of their perceived shared attributes

27

Gang

group of adolescents or adults who form an allegiance for a common purpose. Encouraging stereotyping