Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

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Microbiology
Chapter 24
updated 6 years ago by Ajh
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1

UPPER Respiratory system can become infected and produce:

  • Epiglottitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Pharyngitis
  • Tonsilitis
  • Sinusitis
2

Epilglottitis

H. influenza- B

3

UPPER Respiratory: Bacterial Diseases

  • Pharyngitis (strep throat)
  • Scarlet Fever
  • Diptheria
  • Otitis Media
4

Streptococcal Pharyngitis

*strep throat*

GAS - S. pyogenes

  • Resistant to phagocytosis
5

Diagnosis of strep throat (pharyngitis)

Enzyme ImmunoAssays (EIA) tests

6

Streptokinases

break down clots

7

Streptolysins

are cytotoxic

8

S. pyogenes produces

erythrogenic toxin

9

Diptheria

C. diptheriae

10

Immunization for Diptheria

DTaP vaccine

  • diphtheria toxid
11

Cutaneous diptheria

infected skin wound leads to slow-healing ulcer

12

(5) Bacterial causes of Otitis Media

"earache"

  • S. pneumonia
  • H. influenza
  • M. catarrhalis
  • S. pyogenes
  • S. aureus
13

which causative agent for Otitis Media is reduced by vaccine

S. pneumoniae

14

Common Cold- viral disease of UPPER respiratory caused by:

Rhinovirus (50%)

Coronavirus (20%)

15

LOWER Respiratory system can become infected from bacteria, viruses and fungi causing?

  • Bronchitis
  • Bronchiolitis
  • Pneumonia
16

LOWER Respiratory: Bacterial Diseases

  • Pertussis (whooping cough)
  • TB
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Q Fever
17

Pertussis "whooping cough"

Bordetella pertussis

18

Vaccination for Pertussis "whooping cough"

DTaP vaccine

Pertussis toxoid

19

Pertussis "whooping cough"

  • Tracheal cytotoxin
  • damage cilia
20

1st stage of whooping cough

  • Catarrhal Stage-

resembles a cold

21

2nd stage of whooping cough

  • Paroxysmal Stage-

violent coughing

22

3rd stage of whooping cough

  • Convalescence Stage -

can last for months

23

Tuberculosis

"TB"

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • human-human contact
24

Pathogenesis of TB

Tubercle (lesion) ruptures, bacillus enter bronchiole, spreads throughout lungs, then to the circulatory & Lymph system

25

TB that infects people with HIV infection

M. avium-intracellulare

26

Bovine TB - transmitted to humans from unpasteurized milk

M. bovis

27

Diagnosis for TB

Tuberculin skin test

  • positive reaction = current/previous infection
28

What follows the Tuberculin skin test screening

  • X-ray or CT exam
  • acid-fast staining
  • culture the bacteria
29

Pneumococcal pneumonia

"Streptococcal pneumonia"

S. pneumonia ( ENCAPSULATED)

Typical pneumonia- lungs fill with fluid

30

Treatment for Pneumococcal pneumonia

Penicillin

Fluroquinoles

31

H. influenza pneumonia

Coccobacillus

32

Predisposing factors of H. influenza pneumonia

  • alcoholism
  • poor diet
  • cancer
  • diabetes
33

Treatment for H. influenza pneumonia

Cephalosporin

34

Mycoplasmal pneumonia "walking pneumonia"

  • Atypical infection
  • mild but persistent symptoms
  • common in young adults & children
35

Treatment for Mycoplasmal pneumonia

"walking pneumonia"

Tetracyclines

36

Legionellosis

L. pneumophila

  • found in water
  • NO person-person transmission
37

Legionellosis tends to affect

older men who smoke or drink heavily

38

Treatment for Legionellosis

Erythromycin

39

Chlamydial pnuemonia

person-person transmission

40

Treatment for Chlamydial pneumonia

Tetracycline

41

What 2 bacterial pneumonias resemble each other

Mycoplasmal & Chlamydial

42

Q Fever

Coxiella burnetii

  • tick (vector)
43

Q Fever can be transmitted by

unpasteurized milk

44

Q Fever can be treated with

Doxycycline & Chloroquine

45

LOWER respiratory: Viral Diseases

  • Viral pneumonia
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • Influenza(flu)
46

Viral Pneumonia occurs as a complication of

  • influenza
  • measles
  • chickenpox
47

Infant pneumonia is caused by

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

48

Influenza (flu) symptoms

  • chills
  • fever
  • headache
  • muscle aches
  • NO INTESTINAL SYMPTOMS
49

Hema (HA) spike

attach to host

50

Neura (NA) spike

releases the virus

51

Antigenic shift

MAJOR genetic reassortment

  • changes in HA & NA spikes
52

Antigenic drift

accumulates mutations - avoids immunity

53

LOWER respiratory: Fungal Dieases:

  • Histoplasmosis
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Blastomycosis
54

Histoplasmosis

H. capsulatum

55

Pneumocystis pneumonia

P. jirovecii

56

Blastomycosis

B. dermatitidis

  • abscess
  • extensive tissue damage
57

Opportunistic fungi of the immuno-suppressed (cancer, diabetes):

  • Aspergillus
  • Mucor
  • Rhizopus