Political Science Part 1

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created 7 years ago by mbuenafe
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Harold Jansen
updated 7 years ago by mbuenafe
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1

level of measurement

  • use the lowest level of measurement if you have more than one
2

Nominal

  • level of measurement
  • lowest level of measurement
  • just measures categories
  • Lambda = PRE measurement (sometimes comes back a 0) SOA
  • Cramer's V ± PRE measurement SOA
3

Ordinal

  • level of measurement
  • Gamma = PRE (ignores ties) SOA
  • Tau-B = PRE (includes ties) only used for square cross tabs SOA
  • Start with Tau-B as first choice
4

Interval or higher

  • level of measurement
  • Pearson's R (measures how much scatter in best fit line in a scatterplot) SOA
  • Dot's straight line = Pearson's R 1
  • Dot's all over the place = Pearson's R closer to 0
  • Regression - not to measure strength of association (y=a+bx) (y/x)
5

comparing means

  1. two variables (1 has to be an interval or higher)
  2. groups (nominal) ex. liberals/conservatives
  3. How many groups (2 groups = T-test, 3+groups = One way ANOVA)
6

Multiple Regression

  • 1 dependent variable and several independent variables
  • Dependent has to be measured at the interval+
  • Independent has to be interval+ or dummy variables
  • Dummy variables (0/1) 0 = absence 1= presence
  • Can't use a dummy as a dependent variable
7

Positivist

  • approach to social science
  • position scientific approach best way to gain knowledge
  • values take no role
  • quantitative date (law-like generalizations)
8

Interpretive

  • approach to social science
  • all knowledge is socially constructed
  • no such thing as objective reality
  • qualitative approach ex. survey
  • ex. sociology/anthropology
9

Critical

  • approach to social science
  • ex. Marxist approach to SS
  • conflict between workers and owners
  • need values
10

Feminist

  • approach to social science
  • mostly critical and interpretive
  • narrower look
  • relationship between male/female
11

Post-modern

  • approach to social science
  • not possible to identify 'objective' knowledge
  • knowledge is embedded within power, class, gender and racial structure
12

Step in Scientific method

  1. Identify the problem
  2. Hypothesize cause of the problem
  3. Provide clear definitions of the concepts
  4. Operationalize the concept
  5. gather empirical data
  6. test hypothesis or es
  7. Reflect back on theory
  8. publicize the results
  9. replicate the results
13

Hypothesis

  • Characteristics of a good one
  • An affirmative statement of a testable relationship between two concepts
  • Statements not questions
  • direction of relationship (positive/negative)
  • empirically testable can't be value statement
  • clear, specific, general, from theory
  • plausible
14

Causation

  • How to establish:
15

Operationalization of variables

  • translating concepts into something that can be measured
16

Inductive Research

  • bases conclusions on the presence of empirical evidence
  • start with particular then move to general
17

Deductive Research

  • conclusion from a set of premises
  • start with theory then make specific predictions
18

Validity

  • extent to which results of a study reflect reality
  • face validity, predictive validity, concurrent group validity
19

Reliability

  • extent to which the measurement of a particular variable yields consistent results
  • returns same values when measuring same phenomenon