##### Political Science Part 1

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1

level of measurement

- use the lowest level of measurement if you have more than one

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Nominal

- level of measurement
- lowest level of measurement
- just measures categories
- Lambda = PRE measurement (sometimes comes back a 0) SOA
- Cramer's V ± PRE measurement SOA

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Ordinal

- level of measurement
- Gamma = PRE (ignores ties) SOA
- Tau-B = PRE (includes ties) only used for square cross tabs SOA
- Start with Tau-B as first choice

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Interval or higher

- level of measurement
- Pearson's R (measures how much scatter in best fit line in a scatterplot) SOA
- Dot's straight line = Pearson's R 1
- Dot's all over the place = Pearson's R closer to 0
- Regression - not to measure strength of association (y=a+bx) (y/x)

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comparing means

- two variables (1 has to be an interval or higher)
- groups (nominal) ex. liberals/conservatives
- How many groups (2 groups = T-test, 3+groups = One way ANOVA)

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Multiple Regression

- 1 dependent variable and several independent variables
- Dependent has to be measured at the interval+
- Independent has to be interval+ or dummy variables
- Dummy variables (0/1) 0 = absence 1= presence
- Can't use a dummy as a dependent variable

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Positivist

- approach to social science
- position scientific approach best way to gain knowledge
- values take no role
- quantitative date (law-like generalizations)

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Interpretive

- approach to social science
- all knowledge is socially constructed
- no such thing as objective reality
- qualitative approach ex. survey
- ex. sociology/anthropology

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Critical

- approach to social science
- ex. Marxist approach to SS
- conflict between workers and owners
- need values

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Feminist

- approach to social science
- mostly critical and interpretive
- narrower look
- relationship between male/female

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Post-modern

- approach to social science
- not possible to identify 'objective' knowledge
- knowledge is embedded within power, class, gender and racial structure

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Step in Scientific method

- Identify the problem
- Hypothesize cause of the problem
- Provide clear definitions of the concepts
- Operationalize the concept
- gather empirical data
- test hypothesis or es
- Reflect back on theory
- publicize the results
- replicate the results

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Hypothesis

- Characteristics of a good one
- An affirmative statement of a testable relationship between two concepts
- Statements not questions
- direction of relationship (positive/negative)
- empirically testable can't be value statement
- clear, specific, general, from theory
- plausible

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Causation

- How to establish:

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Operationalization of variables

- translating concepts into something that can be measured

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Inductive Research

- bases conclusions on the presence of empirical evidence
- start with particular then move to general

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Deductive Research

- conclusion from a set of premises
- start with theory then make specific predictions

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Validity

- extent to which results of a study reflect reality
- face validity, predictive validity, concurrent group validity

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Reliability

- extent to which the measurement of a particular variable yields consistent results
- returns same values when measuring same phenomenon