Disorders Associated with the Immune System

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created 6 years ago by kjansen01
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1

Over-response Of The Immune System

  • Hypersensitivity
  • Autoimmunity
  • Transplant Rejection
  • Allergy
  • Anaphylaxis
2

Under-Response Of The Immune System

  • Disease
  • Immune Suppression
  • Cancer
3

Hypersensitivity

  • Allergy
  • Over-response to an Ag (antigen)
  • Can be immediate or delayed
  • Occur in people who have been sensitized by previous exposure
4

Four Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions (Rxn)

  • Type I (Anaphylactic)
  • Type II (Cytotoxic)
  • Type III (Immune Complex)
  • Type IV (Cell-Mediated)
5

Type I (Anaphylactic) Rxn

  • Involve IgE Ab
  • IgE Ab bind to mast cell and basophils
6

Type I (Anaphylactic) Rxn

  • Histamines, prostaglandins & leukotrienes released
  • Increased BV permeability
  • Smooth muscle contraction (enhanced inflammation)
  • Localized: Hives/ asthma from contact or inhalation
  • Systemic: shock from ingested/injected Ag
7

Type II (Cytotoxic) Rxn

  • Involve IgG or IgM Ab and complement
  • Complement activation causes cell lysis/damage of host cell by macrophages
  • Usually problem in blood transfusions
8

Type III (Immune Complex) Rxn

  • Like cytotoxic, but Ag is soluble in serum not from host cells
  • IgG & IgM & Ag form complexes that lodge in basement membranes
  • Tissues damaged from complement activation
  • Glomerulonephritis: inflammatory damage to kidney glomeruli
9

Type IV (Cell-Mediated) Rxn

  • No Ab involved
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity due to TD cells
  • Cytokines attract macrophages & initiate tissue damage
  • Ex: poison ivy and latex
10

Auto-Immune Disease

  • Clonal deletion during fetal development ensures self-tolerance
  • Autoimmunity is loss of self-tolerance
11

Four Types of AID (Auto-Immune Disease)

  • Type I AID (Anaphylaxis)
  • Type II AID (Cytotoxic)
  • Type III AID (Immune Complex)
  • Type IV AID (Cell-Mediated)
12

Type-I (Autoimmunity)

  • Due to Ab against pathogen
  • Similarities in self proteins and infectious agent result in Ab attacking self cell
  • Ex: Hep C virus
13

Type II (Cytotoxic)

  • Ab rxn to cell surface Ag, but no cytotoxic destruction of cells
  • Ex: Grave's Disease
14

Type III (Immune Complex)

  • Individuals produce Ab directed at components of their own cells including DNA
  • Ex: Systemic Lupus Erythematous
  • IgM, IgG, complement immune complexes deposit in tissue
  • Ex: Rheumatoid Arthritis
15

Type IV (Cell-Mediated)

  • Mediated by T Cell
  • Ex: MS, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Insulin-dependent mellitus
16

HLA Typing

Grafts

  • Autograft: (use of one's own tissue)
  • Isograft: use of identical twin's tissue