Micro Exam 4 ch 26

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Microbiology
Chapter 26
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1

Gonorrhea: signs, symptoms, course of disease, presence of maternal-child transfer, possibility of cure, preventable measures

  • caused by the gram negative diplococus Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
  • N. Gonorrhoeae attaches to mucosal cells of the oral-pharyngeal area, genitals, eyes and rectum by means of fimbriae
  • Symptoms in men: painful urination and pus discharge. Blockage of the urethra and sterility are complication of untreated cases
  • Symptoms in women: asymptomatic unless the infection spreads to the uterus and uterine tubes then symptoms may include may include abdominal pain from pelvic inflammatory disease
  • untreated gonorrhea can disseminate and become a systemic infection: gonorrheal endocarditis, gonorrheal meningitis, and gonorrheal arthritis can result due to complications of gonorrhea
  • if the mother is infected with gonorrhea, the eyes of an infant can become infected as it passes through the birth canal-- a condition know as ophthalmia neonatorum which can result in blindness; because of the difficulty of being sure of mothers are free of gonorrhea antibiotics are placed in the eyes of all newborn infants
  • can be transferred by hand contact from infect sites; acquired at any point of sexual contact
  • diagnosis uses ELISA. monoclonal antibodies against the antigens on the surface of gonococcus
  • Treatment : cephalosporins, ceftriaxone, fluoroquinolones (due to resistance developing)
2

Chlamydia: signs, symptoms, course of disease, presence of maternal-child transfer, possibility of cure, preventable measures

  • Chlamydia Trachomatis
  • often coinfects with gonorrhea, affecting the same columnar epithelial cells
  • common pathogen associated with Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
  • symptoms are mild but can include (in both male and females) discharge, burning sensation while urinating
  • if not treated, men can develop inflammation of the epidiymis, woman can develop inflammation of the uterine tube which may lead to sterility due
  • often diagnosed by culturing through swab collection
  • treatment: sensitive to tetracycline-type antibiotics
3

syphilis: signs, symptoms, course of disease, presence of maternal-child transfer, possibility of cure, preventable measures

  • gram-negative spirochete: treponema pallidum
  • Symptoms: Primary stage: primary lesion is a small, hard-based chancre(sore) at the site of infection; chancre is pain less, serum forms in the center in which is highly infectious, will go away; following by the bacteria invading the blood and lymphatic system
  • secondary stage: The appearance of fa widley dissimated rash on the skin and mucous membranes; spiratchetes are present in the lesions of the rash; spirochetes are present in the lesions of the rash which are highly infectious; patient enters a latent period after secondary lesions spontaneously heal; not infectious during latent period unless passed from mother to fetus
  • Tertiary stage: about 10 yrs after secondary stage; lesions called gummas characterized as rubbery masses of tissue appear on various organs; if untreated: Cardiovascular syphilis (Rare); Neurosyphilis occurs in 10% of patients untreated
  • Congenital Syphilis: most dangerous and distressing form; occurs when syphilis is transmitted across the placenta to unborn fetus; occurs when mother gets pregnant during the latent stage
  • treatment: denzathine penicillin (long acting, remains in body for 2 weeks after, usual treatment); azithromyocin, doxycycline, tetracycline
4

Herpes simplex viruses: signs, symptoms, course of disease, presence of maternal-child transfer, possibility of cure, preventable measures

  • HSV-1 & HSV-2 cause genital herpes
  • Symptoms: painful urination. genital irritation and fluid filled vesicles
  • virus may enter latent stage n nerve cells; vesicles reappear following trauma and hormonal changes
  • Neonatal herpes is contracted during fetal development or birth and can result in the neurological damage or infant fatalities
  • There is no cure for Herpes though there are treatments to suppress or manage symptoms
5

HIV: signs, symptoms, course of disease, presence of maternal-child transfer, possibility of cure, preventable measures

  • Lentivirus; retrovirus; two identical strands if RNA, the enzyme reverse transcriptase and an envelope of phospholipids with glycoprotein spikes
  • route of transmission: sexual contact, breast milk, trans-placental infection of a fetus, blood contaminated needles, organ transplants, artificial insemination, blood transfusion
  • Phase 1: asymptomatic;
  • Phase 2: decline in immune response-may be apparent by the persistent infections of Candida albicans (month, throat,vaginal); Oral leukoplakia (whitish patches on oral mucosa);
  • Phase 3: Clinical AIDS emerges (Indicators: C. albicans infections of bronchi, trachea or lungs; cytomegalovirus eye infections; TB; Pneumocystic pneumonia; toxoplasmosis of the brain; and Kaposi's sarcoma)
  • currently the only treatment is to try to minimize transmission: educations programs promoting condoms; discouraging sexual promiscuity; encouraging sterile needle use in underdeveloped countries, educating health workers on safety
6

Hepatitis B: signs, symptoms, course of disease, presence of maternal-child transfer, possibility of cure, preventable measures

  • caused by the Hepatitis B virus
  • often transmitted through blood transfusions, accidental needle pricks, etc
  • symptoms include: malaise, low grade fever, nausea, abdominal pain, jaundice, dark urine, if chronic severe liver damage
  • no specific treatment
7

HPV

  • human papillomaviruses
  • growth on mucous membranes that line organs such as the respiratory tract, mouth, anus and genitalia-- causes genital warts
  • usually transmitted sexually
  • can not be cured but can be treated;
  • two vaccines include Gardasil and cervarix