Ch 16 Vocabulary

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1

Attitudes

Orientations that locate objects of thought on dimensions of judgement.

2

Attributions

Inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior.

3

Bystander effect

A paradoxical social phenomenon in which people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone.

4

Channel

The medium through which a message is sent.

5

Cognitive development

Transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving.

6

Collectivism

Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to.

7

Commitment

An intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise.

8

Companionate love

Warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one's own.

9

Conformity

The tendency for people to yield to real or imagined social pressure.

10

Defensive attribution

The tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.

11

Discrimination

Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group.

12

External attributions

Ascribing the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints.

13

Foot-in-the-door technique

Getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chance that they will agree to a larger request later.

14

Fundamental attribution error

Observers' bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others' behavior.

15

Group

Two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent.

16

Group coheiveness

The strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself.

17

Group polarization

A phenomenon that occurs when group discussion strengthens a group's dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction.

18

Groupthink

A process in which members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision.

19

Illusory correlation

A misperception that occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen.

20

Individualism

Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.

21

Ingroup

The group that people belong to and identify with.

22

Internal attributions

Ascribing the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings.

23

Interpersonal attraction

Positive feelings toward another.

24

Intimacy

Warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship.

25

Lowball technique

Getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before revealing the hidden costs.

26

Matching hypothesis

The idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.

27

Message

The information transmitted by a source.

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Obedience

A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority.

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Outgroup

People who are not part of the ingroup.

30

Passionate love

A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion.

31

Person perception

The process of forming impressions of others.

32

Prejudice

A negative attitude held toward members of a group.

33

Receiver

The person to whom a message is sent.

34

Reciprocity

Liking those who show that they like you.

35

Reciprocity norm

the rule that people should pay back in kind what they receive from others.

36

Self-serving bias

The tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors.

37

Social loafing

A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves.

38

Social psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others.

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Social roles

Widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave.

40

Social schemas

Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people.

41

Source

The person who sends a communication.

42

Stereotypes

Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group.