Pancreas Protocol

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created 5 years ago by Annabelle
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updated 5 years ago by Annabelle
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1

What is the prep for a pancreatic exam?

NPO 6 hours

2

What transducer should be used on the pancreas?

3.5 – 5 MHz sector or curved linear array transducer

3

What position should the patient be in for a pancreatic exam?

Supine

4

Where is the pancreas?

c-loop of the duodenum and extends to the helium of the spleen

5

The pancreas is _______ gland without a ______.

The pancreas is multi-lobular gland without a capsule

6

What vessels supply the pancreas?

superior mesenteric artery

splenic artery

gastroduodenal artery

7

What vessels drain the pancreas?

superior mesenteric vein

splenic vein

8

What drains the head, body and tail of the pancreas?

Wirsung duct

9

What is the accessory duct in the head of the pancreas?

Santori

10

What is the appropriate reasons for a pancreatic exam?

Pain

Tenderness

Fever

Chills

Leukocytosis.

Hypovolemic shock hypotension

Localized pain

Palpable mass

Weight loss

Painless jaundice

Nausea

Vomiting

Blockage of CBD

11

What are the normal variants of the pancreas?

  • Ectopic Pancreas tissue
  • Annular Pancreas
  • Fibrocystic Disease of the pancreas
  • Congenital cysts 3-5 mm
12

What is the measurement of the pancreatic head?

3.5 cm

13

What is the measurement of the pancreatic neck?

1.5 – 2.5 cm

14

What is the measurement of the pancreatic body?

2.5 cm

15

What is the measurement of the pancreatic tail?

1 – 2.5 cm

16

What is the normal measurement of the duct of Wirsung?

2mm

17

What is an Acute Pancreatitis?

inflamed pancreas

Pancreatic juice leaks into the surrounding parenchyma and begin attacking the pancreatic tissue.

18

What is the sonographic appearance of an Acute Pancreatitis?

Diffuse enlargement

Hypoechoic

30% have normal appearance

19

What is Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis

extreme Inflamed pancreas

20

How does the sonographic appearance of Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis differ from Acute Pancreatitis?

Mass effects

Mass changes in appearance with time

21

What causes a Pancreatic Abscess?

complication of surgery

22

What is the sonographic appearance of a Pancreatic Abscess?

Hypoechoic

Ill-defined mass

Necrosis

23

What is the Presentation of a Pancreatic Abscess?

localized pain

fever

chills

24

What is Phlegmonous Pancreatitis?

Sever form of Acute Pancreatitis, spreads to adjacent tissues

25

What is the sonographic appearance of Phlegmonous Pancreatitis?

Hypoechoic

Ill-defined mass

Necrosis

26

What is lipase?

helps digest fat

27

What is amylase?

helps digest carbs

28

What is carboxypeptidase?

digest proteins

29

What is trypsin?

Helps digest proteins

30

What is chymotrypsinogen?

protein lytic

31

What is nucleases?

helps digest nucleic acids

32

What is gastrin?

stimulates release of gastric acid in stomach

33

Where is gastrin produced?

pyloric antrum

duodenum

pancreas.

34

What is cholecystokinin?

bile release

35

Where is cholecystokinin produced?

I-cells in the lining of the duodenum

36

What is acetylcholine?

neurotransmitter

37

What is secretin?

released after acid in bolus enters the duodenum.

makes pancreas release bicarbonate.

38

What is insulin?

made from beta cells

sugar down

39

What is glucose?

body energy - sugar

40

What is glycogen?

stored glucose

41

What is glucagon?

alpha cells - sugar up

42

What is somatostatin?

no insulin or glycogen