The Main Themes of Microbiology

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1

Microbiology

  • a specialized area of biology that deals with living things ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification
2

Microorganisms and Microbes

  • microscopic organisms
  • examples:
    • bacteria
    • algae
    • protozoa
    • helminths
  • are the main forces that drive the structure and content of the soil, water, and atmosphere
  • have a capacity to break down chemicals that would be harmful to other organisms
  • the majority of microorganisms are single-celled ,but some consist of a few cells
3

Viruses

  • are noncellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements dependent on their infected host
  • can cause harm to the host they infect
4

Eukaryote

  • single-celled organism
  • contains nucleus
5

Prokaryotes

  • have no nucleus
6

Evolution

  • the accumulation of changes that occur in organisms as they adapt to their environment
7

Photosynthesis

  • the light-fueled conversion or carbon dioxide to organic material accompanied by the formation of oxygen
  • plants carry out photosynthesis
8

Bacteria

  • do not have nucleus
  • are ubiquitous
  • invented photosynthesis long before the first plants appeared
    • as a process that did not produce oxygen (anoxygenic photosynthesis)
    • anoxygenic photosynthesis
      • later evolved into oxygenic photosynthesis
9

Decomposition

  • involved the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycles of living things
10

Human Use of Microorganisms

  • humans have been using microorganisms for thousands of years to improve life and even shape civilizations
  • can be engineered to synthesize desirable products
    • such as:
      • drugs
      • hormones
      • enzymes
11

Biotechnology

  • when humans manipulate microorganisms to make products in an industrial setting
  • for example:
    • some bacteria have unique capacities to mine precious metals or to clean up human-created contamination
12

Genetic Engineering

  • an area of biotechnology that manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for the purpose of creating new products and genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
13

Recombinant DNA Technology

  • a powerful technique for designing GMOs
  • makes it possible to to transfer genetic material from one organism to another and to deliberately alter DNA
14

Bioremediation

  • involves the introduction of microbes into the environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants
15

Organelles

  • small double-membrane-bound structures in the eukaryotic cell that perform specific functions
  • includes:
    • nucleus
    • mitochondria
    • chloroplasts
16

Helminths

  • many can be seen with the naked eye (NOT MICROORGANISMS)
  • included in microbiology because of the way they are transmitted and the way the body responds to them
17

Lifestyles of Microorganisms

  • majority of microorganisms live a free existence in habitats such as soil and water
    • they are relatively harmless and often beneficial
18

Parasites

  • microorganisms that are harbored and nourished by other living organisms (called hosts)
  • requires interactions with other organisms
  • causes damage to its hosts through infection and disease
  • makes up only a small proportion of microbes
19

Francisco Redi

  • one of the first scientist to test the theory of spontaneous generation
  • meat in jars experiment
  • attempted to disprove spontaneous generation by placing meat in jars with various coverings with the purpose of attracting flies
20

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

  • Made a crude microscope to examine threads in fabrics
  • Made drawings of what he called “animalcules” in rainwater and scraped from his teeth
21

Louis Pasteur

  • disproved spontaneous generation by using a swan-neck flask to show that air and dust were the source of microbes.
  • pasteurization
22

Robert Koch

  • linked a specific microscopic organism with a specific disease
23

Joseph Lister

  • first to introduce aseptic techniques aimed at reducing microbes in medical settings and preventing wound infections
  • Techniques became the foundation for modern microbial control still in use today
24

Ignaz Semmelweis

  • Showed that women became infected in the maternity ward after examinations by physicians who had been working in the autopsy rooms
25

Nomenclature

  • the assignment of scientific names to the various taxonomic categories and individual organisms
26

Epidemiology

  • monitor and control the spread of diseases in communitites
27

Immunology

  • studies the complex web of protective substances and cells produced in response to infection
28

Taxonomy

  • the science of classifying living things
  • Developed by Carl von Linné in the 1700’s
  • the basic rules for classification
  • Establishes taxonomic categories
29

Decomposition

  • involves the breakdown of dead matter and wastes
  • a vital aspect of microbial nutrient recycling
30

Decomposers

  • bacteria and fungi
31

Geomicrobiology

  • the study of microbes in the earths crust
32

Pathogens

  • any disease causing agent
  • ex:
    • virus
    • bacterium
    • fungus
    • protozoan
    • helminth
33

Methane

  • a greenhouse gas that can be produced primarily by microorganisms
34

When we look at infectious disease statistics for the global human population as a whole, we find the number one cause of death is...

  • respiratory infections
35

Disease spread in poorer countries of the world is increased by...

  • inadequate medical care
  • lack of immunizations and antibiotics
  • malnourishment
36

Historically, gastric ulcers were thought to be caused by stress. Recent medical discoveries now link gastric ulcers to...

  • a bacterial infection
37

Scientific Method

  • formulates an hypothesis and tests it
38

Phylogeny

  • the orderly arrangement of organisms into groups through the use of a format that shows evolutionary relationships
39

The most inclusive level of the hierarchy is the....

  • domain
40

When we move from the animal kingdom to the plant kingdom, we use the term "division" rather than...

phylum

41

Abiogenesis

  • the spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter
42

Hypothesis

  • a scientific explanation that is subject to testing
43

Theory

  • when a hypothesis has been thoroughly supported by long-term study and data