CLEP U.S History II Terms

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1

ABC Programs

those implemented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the Great Depression to give relief to the unemployed

2

Affirmative Action

programs designed to overcome past discriminatory actions such as providing employment opportunities to members of a group that were previously denied employed because of racial barriers

3

Amendment

the modification of the constitution or a law

4

Appeasement

the act of making concessions to a political or military rival

5

Big Stick Diplomacy

Using American military power to fortify the diplomatic policies of the United States

6

Big Three

leaders of the three major allied powers (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin)

7

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the Constitution

8

Bipartisan

politics that emphasizes cooperation between the major parties

9

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929, the day the stock market fell about 40 points with 16.5 million shares traded

10

Block grants

federal money provided to a state or local government for a general purpose, such as reducing crime or improving education, with relativity few requirements on how the states can spend the money

11

Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka

the Supreme Court declared the doctrine of "separate but equal" unconstitutional

12

Cabinet

the heads of the various departments in the Executive branch who aid in the decision-making process

13

Capital Punishment

the execution of an individual by the state as punishment for heinous offenses

14

Caucus

a closed meeting of Democratic Party leaders to agree on a legislative program

15

Civil Rights Act of 1964

legislative act that removed racial barriers in all places vested with a public interest

16

Class Action Suit

a lawsuit filed on behalf of a group of persons with a similar legal claim against a party or individual

17

Cloture

parliamentary procedure for ending debate and calling for an immediate vote on a pending matter

18

Conference

a meeting between committees of the two branches of the legislature to reconcile differences in pending bills

19

Conglomerate

a corporation that has many businesses in unrelated fields

20

Containment

strategy that called for containing communism and preventing it from spreading any further

21

Contras

Right-wing guerillas who fought the leftist Sandinista government of Nicaragua

22

Court Packing

the act of placing members of the same political party on the bench so that opinion of the court will be consistent with the political party's (seen most dramatically with Franklin Delano Roosevelt)

23

Crime of '73

What pro-inflation forces called the demonetization of silver

24

De Facto Segregation

segregation that results from nongovernmental action; i.e., administered by the public

25

De Jure Segregation

legally established segregation

26

Democrat

any member of the democratic Party, one of two major parties in the U.S.; party's lineage traces to Jefferson's Democratic Republican Party (1792)

27

Deregulation

the act of reducing or eliminating economic controls

28

Desegregation

the removal of racial barriers either by legislation or judicial action

29

Dixiecrats

Southern Democrats who opposed Truman because of his support of civil rights; nominated Strom Thurmond for President in 1948 campaign

30

Dred Scott vs. Sanford

the Supreme Court upheld the right of a slave owner to reclaim his property after the slave had fled to a free state

31

Eminent Domain

the power of a government to seize private property for public use, usually with compensation to the owner

32

Ethnocentrism

a belief that one's ethnic group is superior

33

Executive Agreement

informal agreements made by the executive with a foreign government

34

Filibuster

a senator who gains the floor has the right to go on talking until the senator relinquishes the floor to another

35

Foreign Policy

treaties, agreements, and programs focusing on the relations between the United States and other nations

36

Franchise

the right to engage in the electing of public office holders

37

Gerrymander

redrawing of congressional districts in order to secure as many representative party votes as possible

38

Gideon vs. Wainwright

case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in1963 that established the right to legal representation for all defendants in criminal cases

39

GOP

the Republican Party

40

Hoovervilles

empty spaces around cities where the homeless would set up empty shacks in which to live

41

Impeachment

the process used to remove certain officials, including the President, from office. Similar to a trial, impeachment does not necessarily mean that an official will be removed from office; he or she must be found guilty of an impeachable offense

42

Interest Group

group of persons who share some common interest and attempt to influence elected members of the government

43

Iran-Contra

the selling of arms to Iran so that the profits from these sales could be used to fund the contras in El Salvador

44

Jim Crow Laws

laws designed to promote racial segregation

45

Kennedy, John F.

in 1960 became youngest man elected president of the United States; established the Peace Corps in 1961; issued challenge to NASA to land a man on the moon; assassinated in 1963

46

King, Jr., Martin Luther

civil rights leader who fought for the rights of minorities by the use of peaceful civil disobedience

47

Lame Duck

a defeated office holder after that person has lost their re-election, but is still in office until the newly elected official is sworn in

48

League of Nations

international organization to promote peaceful resolution of international conflicts; called on all members to protect the territorial integrity and political independence of all nations; replaced by United Nations

49

Line-Item Veto

the objection by the president to a single item in a piece of legislation; this authority, signed into law by President Clinton in 1996, was unsuccessfully challenged as unconstitutional by six members of Congress, with the U.S. Supreme Court saying the plaintiffs had no legal standing to bring a case

50

Lobbying

activities aimed at influencing public officials and the policies they enact

51

Malcolm X

radical Muslim leader who wanted a total separation of the races

52

Mapp vs. Ohio

the Supreme Court recognized that evidence seized without a search warrant cannot be used

53

McCarthyism

the act of seeking out subversives without cause or need (seen during the 1950s when Senator Joseph McCarthy stoked fear of Communism)

54

Miranda vs. Arizona

1996 case in which the U.S. Supreme Court decided that all persons who are detained or arrested must be informed of their rights

55

Moral Majority

Christian conservatives, led by the Rev. Jerry Falwell, who favored prayer and teaching of creationism in public schools, opposed abortion and pornography, and backed a strong national defense

56

Muckrakers

investigative journalists and authors who exposed corruption in business and government

57

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; pledged that an attack against one is a attack against all

58

Naturalization

process by which persons acquire citizenship

59

New Deal

legislation championed by Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the Great Depression that provided a safety net (e.g., Social Security) for all members of society

60

Nixon, Richard M.

the only president of the United States to resign after being confronted with impeachment (because of his alleged actions in the Watergate scandal)

61

Nonproliferation Treaty

an agreement not to distribute nuclear arms to countries that do not have them

62

Open Door Policy

declared that trade with China should be open to all nations

63

Original Intent

a doctrine of Constitutional interpretation that says Supreme Court Justices should base their interpretations of the Constitution on its authors' intentions

64

Partisan

political opposition drawn along party lines

65

Plessy vs. Ferguson

Supreme Court ruling that established the rule of "separate but equal" as being constitutional

66

Political Question

constitutional question that judges refuse to answer because to do so would encroach upon the authority of Congress or the president

67

Poll Tax

the requirements of a person to pay for the right to vote

68

Populist

a political coalition of agrarians with urban workers and the middle class; goals included monetization of silver, a graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, telegraph, telephone systems, an eight-hour workday, and a ban on private armies used to break up strikes

69

Progressivism

political movement calling for rejuvenation of free enterprise capitalism and the destruction of illegal monopolies; also called for civil service reform and honest and efficient government

70

Public Opinion

the beliefs, preferences, and attitudes about an issue that involves the government or society at large

71

Reagan, Ronald W.

two-term president during the 1980s whose economics policies followed supply-side theory

72

Referendum

the process whereby a legislative proposal is voted upon by popular vote

73

Republican

any member of the Republican Party, one of the U.S.'s two major political parties; the GOP came into being 1854-1856, unifying anti-slavery forces

74

Roe vs. Wade

the Supreme Court decision established a woman's right to an abortion

75

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano

president of the United States during the Depression and World War II; most noted for his enactment of New Deal programs such as the Social Security Act

76

Scalawags

Southerners who supported Reconstruction programs

77

Social Darwinism

application of Darwin's theory of evolution, survival of the fittest, to justify unequal distribution of wealth by claiming that God granted wealth to the fittest

78

Supply-Side Economics

economic theory that says if government policies leaves more money in the hands of the people, they will invest it and stimulate the economy

79

Symbolic Speech

nonverbal communication of a political idea

80

Tariff

any tax levied on imported goods

81

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's assertion that the United States must support free people who were resisting Communist domination

82

United States vs. Nixon

the Supreme Court ruled that material vested with a public interest could not be withheld from evidence under the rule of executive privlige

83

War Powers Act

the act requires Congress to approve stationing American troops overseas for more than 90 days

84

Watergate

the illegal entry and phone monitoring in 1972 of Democratic headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington by members of the Republican Party