Learning Objectives 3 for Cells Genes Molecules

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1

Who came up with the double helix theory?

James Watson and Francis Crick

2

Whose X-ray crystallology work gave James Watson and Francis crick there double helix theory?

-Rosalind Franklin

3

What is Semi-conservative?

-DNA replication

4

What Translates to Amino Acids?

-Codons

5

What are Codons?

-a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.

6

What enzyme is involved with semi-conservative DNA replication

-RNA polymerase(DNA- dependent RNA polymerase)

7

What are forks in DNA replication?-

-breaks the hydrogen bonds between the two complementary strands of DNA

8

What is the central dogma?

DNA makes RNA which makes Protein

9

What is the principle enzyme in transcription?

--RNA polymerase(DNA- dependent RNA polymerase)

10

What is Transcription?

-Is the process of DNA making RNA

-Results in RNA molecule

-"Central Dogma"

11

What is translation?

-"Central Dogma"

- The process of RNA making protein

-Results in Protein

12

What is folded?

-Mature mRNA

13

What is responsible for recognizing the intron/exon boundary?

-Spliceosomes

14

What are Spliceosomes?

-a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus

15

What are spliceosomes assembled out of?

- from snRNAs and protein complexes

16

What can 1 gene code for?

-More than one protein

17

What do mRNA codons do?

-Translate to amino acids at the ribosome

18

What is translation?

-the process that converts an mRNA sequence into a string of amino acids that form a protein

19

What is a principle enzyme in Transcription?

-RNA Polymerase

20

What recognizes the intron/extron boundary?

-Spliceosomes

21

What is an extron

-The protein-coding region in the DNA.

22

What is an intron

-An intron is a region of mRNA that is going to be removed by splicing b/c it is noncoding

23

What may mutations arise by?

-Chance errors in DNA replication or by chromosomal arrangement

24

What are most mutations?

neutral(have no effect on fitness)

25

What mutations are harmful?

-Mutations that have effect on fitness

26

What are mutagens?

Chemicals,uv radiation, ionizing radiation

27

What are beneficial mutations?

-Those that increase fitness

-Tend to increase in frequency in the population

28

What is positive natural selection

-The chance the frequency will increase in beneficial mutations

29

What are gain of function mutations?

-Increase the function or amount of encoded protein

30

What are loss of function mutations?

-Decrease the function or amount of encoded protein

31

What are more common loss of function mutations or gain of function mutations? why?

-Loss-of-function mutations are more common because it is easier to disrupt the function of a gene than to enhance it.

32

What are Germinal Mutations?

-occurring in the gonads --->ultimately in the gametes • effects seen in all somatic cells • have evolutionary significance

33

What are somatic mutations?

-occurring in somatic cells • effects are seen only locally in the body • E.g. derived from mutated stem cells • E.g. tumor cells

34

What are the types of Mutations?

-Point Mutations

-Chromosomal Mutations

-Copy number Variation

35

What are Point Mutations?

-any mutation resulting from nucleotide substitution, or insertion or deletion of one or a few nucleotides (indels)

36

What are chromosomal Mutations?

-any mutation resulting from a chromosomal rearrangement such as an inversion or translocation.

37

What are copy number variation mutations?

-individuals of a population vary in the number of copies of large segments of the genome

38

What is synonymous substitution?

same amino acid

39

What is missense substitution?

-Different amino acid

40

What is nonsense substitution?

-Premature stop

41

What is a example of missense point mutation?

Sickle-cell anemia

42

What is an example of nonsense point mutation?

-Familial hypercholesterolemia

43

What is an example of an Indel mutation?

-Cystic fibrosis

44

What are chromosomal rearrangments?

-can disrupt or alter gene function

45

What gives rise to hemophilia A

-recurrent inversions

46

What is an example of Copy Number Variant?

-Huntington Disease

47

What are nucleotides?

-a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group.

48

What do nucleotides form?

-the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA

49

What forces hold the helix together?

-Hydrogen bonds

50

What is base pair complementarity?

-either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA

51

What can the nitrogenous base's be in DNA?

A,G,C,T

-cytosine

-adenine

-guanine

-thymine

52

What can the nitrogenous base's be in RNA

U,A,C,G

-Uracil

-Adenine

-Guanine

-Cytosine

53

What does adenine pair with?

-Thymine in DNA

-Uracil in RNA

54

What does Guanine pair with?

-Cytosine in both DNA and RNA

55

What bonds the nitrogenous pairs together?

-Hydrogen Bonds

56

What are Okazaki fragments?

-short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication

57

What happens if mistakes are made in DNA replication

-Mutations

58

What is the backbone of DNA structure

-Sugar-phosphate

59

What is on every sugar in DNA

-Nitrogenous base

60
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-Daughter strand

61
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-Parental strand