the first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight known as the
primary sexual charcteristics
involve the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females, penis, scrotum, and testes in males.
secondary sexual characteristics
are visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity(for example, breast development in females and the appearance of underarm and pubic hair in both sexes.
secular trend or generational change
in pubertal timing lends added support to the role of physical well-being in pubertal development.
conception of and attitude toward their physical appearance
is a tragic eating disorder in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat.
young people again mainly girls, but gay and bisexual boys are also vulnerable engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives.
formal operational stage
which they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking
when faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world.
adolescents ability to evaluate the logic of propositions verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances.
the first is called the adolescents belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.
a second cognitive distortion is the certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated opinion of their own importance--a feeling that they are special and unique.
as the major personality achievement of adolescence and as a crucial step toward becoming a productive, content adult. Constructing an identity involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to pursue in life.
indentity verse role confusion
psychological conflict of adolescence, if young peoples earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limits their choices to ones that do not match their abilities and desires, they may appear shallow, directionless, and unprepared for the challenges of adulthood.
commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration.
exploration without having reached commitment
commitment in the absence of exploration;
an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment.
individuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important, but not for reasons of self-interest. rather, they believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and social order.
postconventional or principled level
individuals at the--move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws. they define morally in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies.
at the preconventional level, morality is externally controlled. children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences. behaviors that result in punishment are view as bad, those that lead to rewards as good.
the degree to which morality is central to self-concept.
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior, and movement toward a more traditional gender identity.
a sense of one-self as a separate, self-governing individual becomes a salient task.
groups of about five to seven members who are friends and, therefore, usually resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values.
among western adolescents attending high schools with complex social structures, often several cliques with similar values form a larger, more loosely organized group called a.