Epidemiology 101: Epidemiology Chapter 5 and 6 Flashcards


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Epidemiology 101
Chapters 5, 6
updated 7 years ago by danielle_garner_355
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1

variable

Any quantity that varies. Any attribute phenomenon or event that can have different variables.

2

continuous variable

Can have an infinite number of values within a specified range.

3

discrete variable

Definite values.

4

positive association

As one value increases, the other values increases.

5

negative association

As one value increases, the other value decreases.

6

X

exposure factor

7

Y

outcome or effect

8

no association

X is not related to Y

9

non-causal

X does not cause Y

10

causal

X causes Y

11

dose-response curve

The plot of a dose-response relationship, which is a type of correlative association between an exposure and an effect.

12

threshold

The lowest dose at which a particular response occurs.

13

multimodal curve

Has several peaks in the frequency of a condition.

14

latency

The time period between initial exposure and a measurable response.

15

epidemic curve

A graphic plotting of the distribution of cases by time of onset.

16

contingency table

A type of table that tabulates data according to two dimensions.

17

Method of Difference

All of the factors in two or more domains are the same except for a single factor, which is hypothesized to be the “cause” of a disease.

18

Method of Concomitant Variation

The method in which a quantitative change in the effect is associated with quantitative changes in a given factor.

19

Operationalization

the process of defining measurement procedures for the variables used in a study

20

point estimate

a single value (sample-based) chosen to represent the population parameter

21

Observational design

Investigator does not have control over the exposure factor and usually is unable to assign subjects randomly to study conditions

22

Experimental design

Investigator controls who is exposed to a factor of interest and assigns subjects randomly to study groups

23

Ecologic Studies

a study in which the units of analysis are populations or groups of people rather than individuals

24

Ecologic comparison study

involves an assessment of the association between exposure rates and disease rates during the same time period

25

Ecologic correlation

an association between two variables (exposure and outcome) measured at the group level

26

Case-Control Studies

Subjects are defined on the basis of the presence or absence of an outcome of interest.

Cases are those individuals who have the outcome or disease of interest, whereas the controls do not.

27

Matched case-control study

the cases and controls have been matched according to one or more criteria such as sex, age, race, or other variables

28

odds ratio

A measure of the association between frequency of exposure and frequency of outcome used in case-control studies.

29

cohort

A population group, or subset thereof (distinguished by a common characteristic), that is followed over a period of time.

30

Prospective Cohort Study

Subjects are classified according to their exposure to a factor of interest and then are observed over time to document the occurrence of new cases (incidence) of disease or other health events.

31

Retrospective Cohort Study

Makes use of historical data to determine exposure level at some baseline in the past
Follow-up for subsequent occurrences of disease between baseline and present is performed.

32

Historical Prospective Cohort Study

Combines retrospective and prospective approaches

33

Relative risk

The ratio of the incidence rate of a disease or health outcome in an exposed group to the incidence rate of the disease or condition in a non-exposed group.

Incidence rate in the exposed/
Incidence rate in the nonexposed

34

Attributable risk

The difference between the incidence rate of a disease in the exposed group and the incidence rate in the non-exposed group.

35

Population Risk Difference

incidence in the total population − incidence in the non-exposed segment

36

intervention study

An investigation involving intentional change in some aspect of the status of the subjects

37

Randomized controlled trial

subjects in a population are randomly allocated into groups, usually called study and control groups, to receive or not to receive an experimental preventive or therapeutic procedure, maneuver, or intervention

38

prophylactic trial

designed to test preventive measures

39

Clinical trial

A research activity that involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety

40

crossover design

participants may be switched between treatment groups

41

community intervention

an intervention designed for the purpose of educational and behavioral changes at the population level

42

quasi-experimental study

a type of research in which the investigator manipulates the study factor but does not assign individual subjects randomly to the exposed and non-exposed groups

43

Program evaluation

Used to determine whether the program meets stated goals and is justified economically

44

Sampling Error

A type of error that arises when values (statistics) obtained for a sample differ from the values (parameters) of the parent population

45

Internal Validity

Refers to the degree to which the study has used methodologically sound procedures

46

Bias

Systematic deviation of results or inferences from truth

47

Hawthorne effect

Participants’ behavioral changes as a result of their knowledge of being in a study

48

Recall bias

Cases may remember an exposure more clearly than controls.

49

Selection bias

Distortions that result from procedures used to select subjects and from factors that influence participation in the study

50

Healthy worker effect

The “observation that employed populations tend to have a lower mortality experience than the general population.”

51

Confounding

The distortion of a measure of the effect of an exposure on an outcome due to the association of the exposure with other factors that influence the occurrence of the outcome.