Endocrine System Disorders

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1

Major Endocrine Glands

  • hypothalamus
  • pituitary gland
  • pineal gland
  • adrenal glands (2)
  • thyroid gland
  • parathyroid glands (4)
  • pancreas
  • the gonads
  • thymus
2

Hormones

  • chemical messengers
  • may be classified by action, source, or chemical structure
3

Hypothalamus

  • releasing and inhibiting hormones
  • antiduretic hormones
  • oxytocin
4

Pituitary

  • growth hormone (GH)
  • prolactin
  • FSH- follicle stimulating hormone
  • LH- luteinizing hormone
  • TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
  • ACTH- adrenocorticotrophic hormone
5

Thymus

  • thymosin
  • thymopoietin
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Thyroid

  • thyroid hormone
  • calcitonin
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Parathyroid Glands

  • parathyroid hormone
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Adrenal Cortex

  • mineralcorticoids
  • glucocorticoids
  • gonadocorticoids
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Adrenal Medulla

  • epinephrine ans norepinephrine
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Pancreas

  • insulin
  • glucagon
  • somatostatin
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Pineal Gland

  • melatonin
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Ovaries

  • estrogen
  • progesterone
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Testis

  • testosterone
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Steroid Hormones

  • are lipids
  • enter the cell and nucleus
  • act directly in the nucleus to engage in transcription
15

Nonsteroid Hormones

  • Needs a secondary messenger system to activate transcription in the nucleus
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Antagonistic Hormones

  • have opposing actions
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Most common cause of endocrine disorders...

adenoma

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Adenomas

  • most common cause of endocrine disorders
  • may be secretory
    • causing excess hormone
  • may be destructive
    • causing a hormonal deficit
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Factors of Excess Hormone Levels

  • tumor producing high levels
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Factors of Deficit Hormone Levels

  • tumor producing too little hormone
  • target cells are resistant or insensitive to the hormone
    • ex: type 2 diabetes
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Diabetes Mellitus

  • caused by:
    • a deficit of insulin secretion from the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans
    • or lack of response by cells to insulin
  • results in abnormal carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism
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Insulin

  • an anabolic hormone
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Anabolic Hormone

  • building up or synthesis of complex substances from simple molecules