Blood & Lymph System Review Flashcards


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1

Anemia

Below normal range of RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Insufficient O2 delivered to tissues and cells

2

Aplasia

Failure of normal process of cell generation and development

3

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

overstimulation of clotting and anticlotting process in response to disease or injury incl. septicemia, obstetric complication, malignancies, tissues trauma, transfusion reaction, burns, shock and snake bites.

4

Erythrocytosis

increased in circulating erythrocytes

5

Erythoropoiesis

process of RBC production

6

Hemophilia A

disturbing of the clotting factor - absent of antihemophilic factor VIII- 80% of total incidence

7

Heterozygous

Trait: having two different genes ( both HgS and hemoglobin A in RBC ) = pass on to their children

8

Homozygous

two identical genes inherits from each parent for a given hereditary characteristic

9

Idiopathic

cause unknown

10

Leukemia

excess of leukocytes accumulates in the bone marrow + lymph nodes

11

Leukopenia

low WBC count ( cause by suppression of bone marrow = fatal condition) <200 neutrophil - normal of 3000-7000

12

Lymphangitis

inflammation of one or more lymphatic vessels result from streptococcal or staphylococcal infection in an extremity

13

Lymphedema

primary or secondary disorder. Accumulation of lymph in soft tissue and edema.

14

multiple myeloma

malignant neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of bone marrow.
Geri: c/o back pain. protein in urine = Hodgkin's disease

15

myeloproliferative

excessive bone marrow production.

16

pancytopenic

all 3 major blood elements (RBC,WBC, and platelets) are reduced or absent

17

pernicious

autoimmune disease in which antibodies in the parietal walls of the stomach prevent the production of the intrinsic factor.

18

Reed-Sternberg cells

large, abnormal, multinucleated cells in the lymph nodes found in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

19

Thrombocytopenia

abnormal hematological condition. Platelets <150000/mm

20

Hemogobin/Hematocrit ratio

3:1
Hemoglobin (male) 14-18 g/dL (female) 12-16 g/dL
Hematocrit (male) 42-52% (female) 37-47%

21

3 functions of blood

Transport O2, nutrition and waste
Regulates acid base balance (pH)
protects the body against infection

22

WBC examination in which different kinds of WBC are counted + recorded

Differential white blood cell count

23

Blood Types

A, B, AB, O
AB - Universal Reciepient
O - Universal Donor
Rules: 1) Give to same letter 2) + to + / - to everyone 3) O follow rule 1, not rule 2

24

Erythrocyte = 0

renal erythropoietin factor (kidney) initiates development of mature RBC = increase O2 delivered to tissues = shuts off the signal to increase RBC production.
Less hemoglobin = less O2 transport to cells = slower breakdown / use of nutrients = less energy produced by cells = decrease cellular function = malaise.

25

Spleen

LUQ of abdominal. Fucntions: reservoir for blood./ form lymphocytes+monocytes +plasma cells/ destroy worn out RBC/remove bacteria by phgocytosis/ produce RBC before birth. Stores 1 Pint of blood

26

Schilling test / Megaloblastic Anemia Profile

measure absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 before and after parenteral injection of the intrinsic factor by examination of urine excretion of vitamin B12

27

Site for bone marrow aspiration

posterior iliac crest

28

Adverse reaction first 15 minute of bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia patient

marrow rejection, infections, graft-versus-host disease.
Meds: cyclosporine(immunosuppresant). chemotherapy

29

Signs/Symptoms of aplastic anemia

Suppression of WBC = infection. Suppression of RBC = anemia. Suppression of thrombocytes = petechiae.
High fever, fatigure, weakness, malaise, dyspnea, palpitation.

30

Z track injection for iron rationale

prevent skin staining

31

Sickle cell anemia factors

81% lack Americans has sickle cell trait. 1/600 in US has sickle cell anemia

32

Sickle cell crisis trigger by

infections = pneumonia, meningitis, influenza and hepatitis

33

erythrocytosis

increase in circulating erythrocytes
Secondary cause: hypoxia stimulates erythropoietin in kidneys = increase erythrocyte production.

34

NI for WBC of 1500

immunocompromised = reverse isolation precaution

35

Petechiae + echymoses

Signs of low platelet counts in thropmbocytopenia

36

NI for low WBC for Leukemia patient

prevention of infection

37

Hemarthrosis

bleeding into a joint space. Small cut = fatal

38

Test for DIC

D-dimer = elevated (breakdown of fibrin and is a specific marker for the degree of fibrinolysis in the serum

39

Staging system for Hodgkin's disease

Stage 1: abnormal single lymph nodes
Stage 2: 2 or more abnormal lymph nodes on same side of diaphram.Localized involvement of extranodal site +one or more lymph node regions on same side of diaphram.
Stage 3: Abnomal lymph node regions on both sides of diaphram. Spleen involvment. Subdivided into lymphatic involvement of upper abdomen in the spleen and lower abdominal nodes in the periaccritic, mesenteric, and iliac regions.
Stage 4: Diffuse and disseminated involvement of 1 or more extralymphatic tissues + orgains. H(Hepatic) L(lung) P(pleural) M(marrow) D(derma) O(osseous)

40

Test for Non-Hosgkin's Lymphoma

Coombs' test (antiglobulin)

41

Signs and symptoms of what is expected or not in iron therapy

Expected: black, tarry stool
Report to physician: diarrhea or nausea

42

pagophagia

desire to eat ice, clay or starches

43

Factors of Iron deficiency Anemia

Excessive iron loss due CHRONIC INTESTINAL OR UTERINE BLEEDING, also from gastric or duodenal ulcers, esophageal varices, hiatal hernias, colonic diverticular and tumors

44

NI to increase absorption of iron

Orange juice

45

NI for patient in respiratory arrest

High fowler or Orthopnic

46

Antidote for heparin

Protamine sulfa

47

Antiplatelet meds

Cinamet, cytotoxin, PLAVIX or Tylenol,abciximab, anagrelide, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, eptifibatide, tirofiban

48

Teaching for Coumdin

Avoid alcohol, aspirin,soft toothbrush, electric razor, limit food with vitamin K (milk, green bean, broccoli, asparagus )

49

Teaching for Ecotrin

Contain aspirin. Do not use for headache

50

Iron deffiency enemia alternative diet sources

apricots, dates, figs, prunes, raisins, dark green veggies, organ meat (liver, heart, tongue), eggs, shell fish, whole grain bread/cereals

51

Signs/Symptoms of Hodgkin's disease on assessment

Fever, chills, night sweats

52

Not use for anemia

iron, epogen, folic acid, BETAPASE, B

53

Teaching for patient with leukemia

Electric razor - risk of bleeding

54

Normal platelet count

150000-500000

55

Female of child bearing age on anticoagulants

Use reliable contraceptive

56

Blood test for Warfarin

Prothrombin Time (PT)

57

Anticoagulants

anisindione, warfarin, heparin, low molecular weight heparins ( dalteparin, enoxaparin, tinzaparin,) disirudin, fondaparinux

58

Teaching for mono patient

Not to smoke, share drinks/food, kiss/exchange spits

59

Thrombolytics

urokinase, reteplase, alteplase, treptokinase, tenecteplase

60

Fat solutble vitamins

A,D,E, K

61

Pre-administration of warfarin

Check PT / INR

62

Anticoagulant antagonists

phytonadione (vitamin K) for warfarin
protamine for heparin

63

NI for patient with following lab values: pH 7.55 HCO3 22 mm Hg, Pco2 30 mm Hg.

Respiratory alkalosis. Encourage client to slow down breathing

64

Blood gas results pH 7.55, Pco2 30 mm Hg indicates

Respiratory alkalosis

65

Allen test to confirm the adequacy of

ulnar circulation

66

Monitoring client with NG tube attached to low suction for which acid base disorder ?

Loss of hydrochloric acid = metabolic alkalosis

67

Patient with severe diarrhea is monitor which acid base disorder?

Loss of biocarbonate = metabolic acidosis

68

Client with diabetic ketoacidosis experiencing Kussmaul's respirations

abnormal deep, regular and increased in rate

69

Patient diagnosed with COPD most like will have which acid base disorder?

chronic or acute respiratory acidosis cause COPD

70

ABG results for respiratory acidosis condition

pH 7.25 ( normal 7.35-7.45) Pco2 50 mm Hg (normal 35-45)

71

Client with respiratory alkalosis with pH of 7.5 Pco2 30 mm Hg. What additional lab values is expected

potassium 3.2 mEq/L

72

Rules of acid base disorder

Resp. acidosis: pH decrease Paco2 increase HCO3 increase K increase
Resp. alkalosis: pH increase Paco2 decrease HCO3 decrease K decrease
Metabolic acidosis: pH decrease Paco2 normal/decrease HCO3 decrease K increase
Metabolic alkalosis: pH increase Paco2 normal/increase HCO3 increase K decrease

73

Severe infection in peripheral blood smear

shift to the left

74

Teaching for anifsindione

use electric razor, soft toothbrush to minimize risk of bleeding

75

Therepeudic effect of warfarin sodium

prevent thromboembolic event

76

oral contraceptives, barbituates, diuretics, vitamin K interaction to warfarin

decrease effectiveness

77

Pre-administration assessment for anticoagulant

active bleeding, hemorraghic disease, severe renal/hepatic disease

78

Diet for anemia patient

Iron( organ meats, eggs, shellfish) folic acid (asparagus, fish)vitamin B12 (milk, cheese), amino acids (poultry,meat), vitamin C(leafy green, strawberries)

79

Question to ask on assessment for Hodgskin disease

Present of HIV, taking immunosuppresssive drugs.