We The People: Thomas Patterson- Chapter 11: Vocabulary Definitions

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We The People
Chapter 11
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1

People residing in an incumbent's state or district.

Constituency

2

Federal spending projects.

Pork-Barrel Spending

3

Practice in which incumbents respond to constituents' individual requests.

Service Strategy

4

Race without an incumbent; often brings out a strong candidate from each party and involves heavy spending.

Open-Seat Election

5

Process during which all 435 seats of the House of Representatives are reallocated among the states in proportion to their population.

Reapportionment

6

Process that involves redrawing House election districts.

Redistricting

7

Process during which the party that controls the legislature typically redraws the boundaries in a way that favors candidates of its party.

Gerrymandering

8

Elections that occur midway between a president's term.

Midterm Election

9

Legislature that has two chambers organized along party lines. i.e. United States' Senate and House of Representatives.

Bicameral Legislature

10

Individuals who will lead their party's efforts in the chamber.

Party Leaders

11

Closed session between members of a party to plan strategy, develop issues, and resolve policy differences.

Party Caucus

12

Members of a party band together on legislation and stand against the opposite party.

Party Unity

13

Physically recorded votes from the members of Congress, as opposed to voice votes.

Roll-Call Votes

14

Permanent committees with responsibility for particular areas of public policy.

Standing Committees

15

Committees with a designated responsibility; do not produce legislation.

Select Committees

16

Composed of members of both houses who perform advisory functions.

Joint Committees

17

Joint committees formed temporarily to work our differences in House and Senate versions of a particular bill.

Conference Committees

18

Policy area in which committees are authorized to act.

Jurisdiction

19

Consecutive years of service.

Seniority

20

Proposed legislative act.

Bill

21

Changing content of a bill or other proposed law.

Mark Up

22

Limits debate over Senate bills to thirty hours; 60 our of 100 Senators must vote for it to be effective.

Cloture

23

Procedural tactic whereby a minority of senators can block a bill by talking until other senators give in and the bill is withdrawn from consideration or altered to fit opponents' demands.

Filibuster

24

Amendments that can be proposed by Senate having no direct relation to the bill.

Riders

25

Bill signed by the president.

Law

26

Authority to make the laws necessary to carry out the powers granted to the national government.

Lawmaking Function

27

Power of the president to reject a bill, which will be sent back to Congress with the president's reasons for not signing it.

Veto

28

In the process of making laws, various interests within American society are represented by Congress, giving the citizens a voice in the national legislature.

Representation Function

29

Practice of trading one's vote with another member's so that both get what they want.

Logrolling

30

Supervisory activity in which Congress has the responsibility to see that the executive branch carries out the laws faithfully.

Oversight Function

31

Term used in reference to officeholders.

Incumbents