We The People: Thomas Patterson- Chapter 9: Vocabulary Definitions

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We The People
Chapter 9
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1

Any organization that actively seeks to influence public policy.

Interest Group

2

Any group that exists primarily for economic purposes including making profits, providing jobs, improving pay, or protecting an occupation.

Economic Groups

3

Most common economic group in America; more than half of all registered lobbyists work for these organizations.

Business Groups

4

Seek to promote policies that benefit workers in general and union members in particular.

Labor Groups

5

Members joined together by a purposive incentive; non-economic.

Citizens' Groups

6

Benefit, such as a job, that is given directly to an individual.

Private (Individual) Good

7

Goods that belong to all and cannot be distributed or withheld on an individual basis; incentive for membership.

Collective (Public) Goods

8

Individuals may obtain the good even if they do not contribute to the group's efforts.

Free-Rider Problem

9

Term that refers broadly to efforts by groups to influence public policy through direct contact with public officials.

Lobbying

10

Based on groups' efforts to maintain close (inside) contacts with policymakers.

Inside Lobbying

11

Consists of small and informal but relatively stable set of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists who seek to develop policies beneficial to a particular interest.

Iron Triangle

12

Informal grouping of officials, lobbyists, and policy specialists who come together temporarily around a policy problem.

Issue Network

13

Involves bringing constituency pressure to bear on policymakers.

Outside Lobbying

14

Pressure designed to convince government officials that a group's policy position has popular support.

Grassroots Lobbying

15

Group through which anyone may take voluntary contributions from members or employees and then donate the money to its candidates.

Political Action Committee (PAC)

16

Independent Expenditure-Only Committees; not allowed to give money directly to candidates or parties, but are otherwise more or less free to spend as much as they want.

Super PACs

17

Tendency of officials to support the policy demands of the interest group or groups having special stake in a policy.

Interest-Group Liberalism

18

Groups that are organized around nearly every conceivable policy issue, with each group pressing its demands to the utmost through lobbying and other forms of political pressure.

Single-Issue Politics