We The People: Thomas Patterson- Chapter 8: Vocabulary Definitions

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We The People
Chapter 8
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1

Ongoing coalition of interests joined together in an effort to get its candidates for public office elected under a common label.

Political Party

2

Republican and Democratic parties compete across the country election after election.

Party-Centered

3

Individual candidates devise their own strategies, choose their own issues, and form their own campaign organizations.

Candidate-Centered

4

Parties serve to connect citizens with government.

Linkage Institutions

5

Narrows voters' options to two, and in the process, enables people with different backgrounds and opinions to act together.

Party Competition

6

Organized chiefly at the local level, and available to all citizens.

Grassroots Party

7

Periods of extraordinary party change; includes:

1. Emergency of unusually powerful and divisive issues.

2. An election(s) contest which the voters shift partisan support.

3. Enduring change in the parties' policies and coalitions.

Party Realignments

8

Uniform support of one party's candidates.

Straight Ticket

9

Voting for one party's presidential candidate and the other party's congressional candidate.

Split Ticket

10

Two major parties; United States has had through most of history; exception rather than the rule.

Two-Party System

11

Two or more parties have the capacity to gain control separately, or in coalition.

Multiparty System

12

Each constituency elects a single member to a particular office.

Single-Member Districts

13

Discourages minor parties by reducing their chances of winning anything, even if they perform well by minor-party standards; winner-takes-all.

Plurality System

14

Seats in the legislature are allocated according to a party's share of one popular vote.

Proportional Representation System

15

Holds that, if there are two parties, the parties can maximize their vote only if they position themselves at the location of the median voter (the voters whose preferences are exactly in the middle).

Median Voter Theorem

16

Groups and interests that support a party collectively.

Party Coalition

17

Drawing more support from one particular gender.

Gender Gap

18

Formed around a lone issue of overriding interests to their followers.

Single-Issue Parties

19

Result from a split between one of the major parties.

Factional Parties

20

A liberal party that emphasizes environmental issues.

Ideological Parties

21

Anti-parties; arise out of a belief that partisan politics is corrupting influence.

Reform Parties

22

Refers to the selection of the individual who will run as a party's candidate in the general election.

Nomination

23

Gives control of nominations to the voters.

Party Election (Direct Primary)

24

Participation is limited to voters registered or declared at the polls as members of the party whose primary is being held.

Closed Primaries

25

Allow independent and sometimes voters of the opposite party to vote in the party's primary.

Open Primaries

26

Candidates are listed on the same ballot, without regard to party; the top two finishers become the general election candidates.

Top-Two Primaries

27

Unlimited amount of donation one person can give to a candidate or party.

Soft Money Contributions

28

Amount of contributions candidates must incur to keep up with other candidates for a competitive campaign.

Money Chase

29

Money given directly to the candidate and can be spent as he or she chooses.

Hard Money

30

Key operatives in an election; campaign strategists, pollsters, media producers and fundraising; help the candidate to plot and execute a game plan.

Political Consultants

31

Highlighting aspects of a candidate's partisanship, policy decisions, personal background, and personality that are thought most attractive to voters.

Packaging

32

Candidates' use of televised ads; term pegged by political scientist Darrell West.

Air Wars

33

Tactic used to get new ads on the air within a few hour's time to rebut attacks and exploit fast-breaking developments.

Rapid Response

34

Voters who could conceivably be swayed to vote for either side.

Swing Voters

35

Swaying of voters that candidates use to make promises of what they will do if elected.

Prospective Voting

36

Voters make their decision based on a candidate or current official's past performance in office.

Retrospective Voting