Ch 13 Vocabulary

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1

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

2

Acute stressors

Threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint.

3

Aggression

Any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally.

4

Approach-approach conflict

A conflict situation in which a choice must be made between two attractive goals.

5

Approach-avoidance conflict

A conflict situation in which a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects.

6

Avoidance-avoidance conflict

Learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring.

7

Biopsychosocial model

A model of illness that holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.

8

Burnout

Physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion that is attributable to work-related stress.

9

Catastrophic thinking

Unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of one's problems.

10

Catharsis

The release of emotional tension.

11

Chronic stressors

Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit.

12

Conflict

A state that occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression.

13

Constructive coping

Relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events.

14

Coping

Active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress.

15

Defense mechanisms

Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.

16

Fight-or-Flight response

A physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (light) and enemy.

17

Frustration

The feeling that people experience in any situation in which their pursuit of some goal is thwarted.

18

General adaptation syndrome

Selye's model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

19

Health psychology

The subfield of psychology concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.

20

Immune response

The body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances.

21

Internet addiction

Spending an inordinate amount of time on the Internet and being unable to control online use.

22

Learned helplessness

Passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.

23

Life changes

Any noticeable alternations in one's living circumstances that require readjustment.

24

Optimism

A general tendency to expect good outcomes.

25

Pressure

Expectations or demand that one behave in a certain way.

26

Psychosomatic diseases

Physical ailments with a genuine organic basis that are cause in part by psychological factors, especially emotional distress.

27

Rational-emotive therapy

An approach to therapy that focuses on altering clients' patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behavior.

28

Social support

Various types of aid and succor provided by members of one's social networks.

29

Stress

Any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well-being and that thereby tax one's coping abilities.

30

Type A personality

Personality characterized by (1) a strong competitive orientation, (2) impatience and time urgency, (3) anger and hostility.

31

Type B personality

Personality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.