FSN Test two

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1

What percent of total caloric intake should be from fats?

20-35%

2

Do Lipids readily dissolve in water?

NO!

3

What are lipids composed of?

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (but less oxygen atoms then in carbs)

4

Triglycerides

The major form of lipids in the body and in foods

composed of 3 fatty acid chains bonded to glycerol, an alcohol

5

Glycerol

A three-carbon alcohol used to form triglycerides

6

Phospholipids

Any of a class of fat-related substances that contain phosphorus, fatty acids, and nitrogen-containing base

-essential part of every cell

7

Sterol

A compound containing a multi-ring (steroid) structure and a hydroxyl group (-OH)

Cholesterol is a typical example

8

Cholesterol

A waxy lipid found in all body cells. Structure contains multiple chemical rings that is found in foods that contain animal products

9

Saturated Fatty Acid

A fatty acid containing no carbon-carbon double bonds

10

Monosaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid containing one carbon-carbon double bond

11

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

A fatty acid containing two or more carbon-carbon double bonds

12

cis fatty acid

A form of an unsaturated fatty acid that has the hydrogen's lying on the same side of the carbon-carbon double bond

13

Trans fatty acid

A form of an unsaturated fatty acid, usually a monosaturated one found in food, in which the hydrogen's on both carbon forming the double bond lie on opposite sides of the bond

14

Long-chain fatty acid

A fatty acid that contains 12 or more carbons

15

Omega-3 fatty acid

An unstaturated fatty acid with the first double bond on the third carbon from the methyl end (--CH3)

16

Omega-6 fatty acid

An unsaturated fatty acid with the first double bond on the sixth carbon from the methyl end (--CH3)

17

Alpha-linolenic acid

An essential omega-3 fatty acid with 18 carbons and 3 double bonds

18

Linoleic acid

An essential omega-6 fatty acid with 18 carbon and 2 double bonds

19

Essential fatty acid

Fatty acids that must be supplied by the diet to maintain health. currently only linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are classified as essential

20

oleic acid

An omega-? fatty acid with 18 carbons and one double bond

21

Diglyceride

A breakdown product of a triglyceride consisting of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol backbone

22

Monoglyceride

A breakdown product of a triglyceride consisting of one fatty acid attached to a glycerol backbone

23

Lecithin

A group of compounds that are major components of cell membranes

24

Emulsifier

A compound that can suspend fat in water by isolating individual fat droplets, using a shell of water molecules or other substances to prevent the fat from coalescing

25

BHA, BHT

Butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene- two common synthetic antioxidants added to foods

26

Hydrogenation

The addition of hydrogen to a carbon-carbon double bond, producing a single carbon-carbon bond with two hydrogen s attached to each carbon

hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in a vegetable oil increases its hardness, so this process is used in converting liquid oils into more solid fats, used in the making of margarine and shortening

27

Lipase

Fat-digesting enzymes produced by the salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas

28

Lipoprotein

A compound found in the blood stream containing a core of lipids with a shell composed of protein, phospholipid, and cholesterol

29

Chylomicron

Lipoprotein made of dietary fats surrounded by a shell of cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein

Chylomicrons are formed in the absorptive cells of the small intestine after fat absorption and travel through the lymphatic system to the blood stream

30

Lipoprtein lipase

An enzyme attached to the cells that form the inner lining of blood vessels; it breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol

31

Very-low lipoprtein

VLDL the lipoprotein created in the liver that carries cholesterol and lipids that have been taken up or newly synthesized in the liver

32

High-density lipoprotein

The lipoprotein in the blood that picks up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources and transfers it to the other lipoprteins in the bloodstream, as well as directly to the liveer; low HDL increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

33

Menopause

The cessation of the menstrual cycle in women, usually begins at about 50 years old

34

Scavenger cells

specific form of white blood cells that can bury themselves in the artery wall and accumulate LDL

As these cells takeup LDL, they contribute to the development of artherosclerosis

35

Atherosclerosis

A build up of fatty material (plaque) in the arteries, including those surrounding the heart

36

Eicosapeotaenoic acid (EPA)

An omega-3 fatty acid with 20 carbon and 5 carbon-carbon double bonds

it is present in large amounts in fatty fish and is slowly synthesized in the body from alpha-linolenic acid

37

docosabexaenoic acid

(DHA) an omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbons and 6 carbon-carbon double bonds

It is present in large amounts in fatty fish and slowly synthesized in the body from alpha-linolenic acid

DHA is especially present in the retina and brain

38

Archidonic acid

An omega-6 fatty acid made from linolic acid with 20 carbon atoms and four carbon carbon double bonds

39

Hemorrhagic stroke

Damage to part of the brain resulting from rupture of a blood vessel and subsequently bleeding within or over the internal surface of the brain

40

rancid

Containing products of decomposed fatty acids that have an unpleasant flavor and odor

41

Total parenteral nutrition

The intravenous feeding of all necessary nutrients, including the most basic forms of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes

42

Branched-chain amino acids

Amino acids with branching carbon backbone; these are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. All are essential amino acids

43

nonessential amino acids

Amino acids that can be synthesized by a healthy body in sufficient amounts; there are 11 nonessential amino acids

These are also called Dispensable amino acids

44

Essential amino acids

The amino acids that cannot be synthesized by humans in sufficient amounts or at all and therefore must be included in the diet; there are 9 essential amino acids

These are also called Indispensable amino acids

45

Limiting amino acids

The essential amino acid in lowest concentration in a food or diet relative to body needs

46

peptide bond

A chemicalbond formed between amino acids in protein

47

polypeptide

A group of amino acids bonded together from 50 to 2000 or more

48

Sickle cell disease

An illness that results from malformation of the red blood cells because of an incorrect structure in part of its hemoglobin protein chains

The disease can lead to episodes of severe bone and joint pain, abdominal pain, headache, convulsions, paralysis, and even death

49

Denaturation

Alteration of a protein's three-dementional structure usually because of treatment by heat, enzymes, acid or alkaline solutions, or agitation

50

high-quality (complete) proteins

Dietary proteins that contain ample amounts of all nine essential amino acids

51

Lower-quality (incomplete) proteins

Dietary proteins that are low in or lack one or more essential amino acids

52

Complementary proteins

Two food protein sources that make up for each others inadequate supply of specific essential amino acids; together they yield a sufficient amount of all nine and, so provide high-quality (complete) protein for the diet

53

pepsin

A protein-digesting enzyme produced by the stomach

54

Trypsin

A protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas to act in the small intestine

55

Protein turnover

The process by which cells breakdown old proteins and re-synthesize new proteins

In this way the cells will have the proteins it needs to function at that time

56

capillary bed

Network of one-cell-thick vessels that create a junction between arterial and venous circulation. It is here that gas and nutrient exchange occurs between body cells and the blood

57

Extracellular space

The space outside cells; represents one-third of body fluid

58

edema

the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces

59

buffers

Compounds that cause a solution to resist changes in acid-base conditions

60

Satiety

A state in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a feeling of satisfaction

61

pool

The amount of nutrient stored within the body that can be mobilized when needed

62

Carbon skeleton

Amino-acid structure that remains after the amino group (--NH2) has been removed

63

Urea

Nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism; major source of nitrogen in the urine

64

Protein Equilibrium

A state in which protein intake is equal to related protein losses; the person is said to be in protein balance

65

Positive protein balance

A state in which protein intake exceeds related protein losses, as is needed during times of growth

66

Negative protein balance

A state in which protein intake is less than related protein losses, as is often seen during acute illness

67

Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM)

A condition resulting from regularly consuming insufficient amounts of calories and proteins.

The Deficiency eventually results in body wasting, primarily of lean tissue, and an increase susceptibility to infections

68

Kwashiorkor

A disease occurring primarily in young children who have an existing disease and consume a marginal amount of calories and insufficient protein in relation to needs

The child generally suffers from infectious and exhibits edema, poor growth, weakness, and an increased susceptibility to further illness

69

Marasmus

A disease resulting from consuming a grossly insufficient amount of protein and calories; one of the diseases classed as protein-calorie malnutrition

Victims have little or no fat stores, little muscle mass, and poor strength. Death from infections is common

70

gruels

A thin mixture of grains or legumes in milk or water

71

preterm

An infant born before 37 weeks of gestation; also referred to as premature

72

Why have potatoes recently been added to WIC?

Great source of potassium, vitamin C, Fiber, Iodine, Vitamin B6

73

Types of Lipids

Triglycerides

Fatty acids

-saturated

-monounsaturated

-polyunsaturated

-essential

Phospholipids

-Sterols

-Trans Fatty Acids

74

Properties of Lipids

Do not readily dissolve in water (non-polar)

75

What are lipids composed of?

Carbon and hydrogen

76

How many kcal/gram do lipids have

9

77

Triglyceride

Major form of lipid in the body and in food

-composed of glycerol backbone with three fatty acid chains

78

Saturated Fatty Acid

NO DOUBLE BONDS

-Solid at room temp

79

Monounsaturated Fatty Acid

ONE DOUBLE BOND

-generally liquid at room temp (or very soft)

80

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

MORE THAN ONE DOUBLE BOND

-liquid at room temp

81

Essential Fatty Acids

-Needed for immune function, vision, cell membrane, and production of hormone-like compounds

-Are necessary in diet intake since body cannot produce them

-only small amounts necessary

82

Two Essential Fatty Acids are...

Omega-3

&

Omega-6

83

Omega-3

Nuts, fatty fish, some seeds

EPA and DHA

double bond starts on the third carbon from methyl end

Decreases blood clotting, reduces risk of heart attack

may lower high blood triglycerides

excess may cause hemorrhagic strokeNum

84

Omega-6

Get mostly from corn oil

Double bond starts on the sixth carbon from the methyl end

Increases blood clotting

-increases inflammatory responses

85

Good sources of Omega-3

Salmon, Anchovy, sardines

86

Phospholipids

Built on a glycerol backbone

Has at least one fatty acid replaced with a phosphorus compound

Found in body

Has a glycerol, two carbon chains, and a phosphate group

87

Sterol

Multi-ringed structure

does not have a glycerol backbone

Waxy substance (never a liquid)

Does not dissolve in water

ex. Cholesterol

88

What types of food can you find cholesterol in?

animal sources ONLY

89

MUFA

MonoUnsaturated Fatty Acid

90

Why do we like Fats?

Satiety

Flavor

Texture

91

What percent of calories should come from lipids?

20-35%

92

Cis form

Hydrogen's are on one side of double bond

Liquid form

93

Trans fatty acid

Moves one hydrogen to the other side of double bond= shaped like a saturated fatty acid

BAD FOR YOU, AVOID AT ALL COSTS

94

Hydrogenation of Fatty Acid

Process used to solidify (or semi-solidify) an oil

-hydrogenation

Addition of H to C=C double bonds

**Formation of Trans fatty acid is similar in shape to saturated fatty acids--> Hydrogenated fats can be found in margarine, vegetable shortening, and shelf-stable baked goods

Increases shelf life

95

Trans-fatty acids

Raise LDL: Low density Lipoproteins

Lowers HDL: High density Lipoproteins

Increases risk for heart disease

96

LDL

Low density Lipoproteins

97

HDL:

High density Lipoproteins

98

Reduced Fat Foods

Total energy is often the smae/similar

Carbohydrates or protein based replacers

Consequently, may reduce-fat products are still quite energy-dense

99

Rancidity

Oxidized fats

Breakdown of the oils

Bonds in the fatty acids break down (double bonds are more vulnerable)

100

Ways of protecting foods from rancidity

-Chemicals

Trans fat, BHT, BHA

-Natural

Vitamin E, Vitamin C

Packaging (keeping oxygen out)

101

Hidden Fat

ex. Milk, pastries, cookies, cake, cheese, hot dogs, etc.

-Look on nutrition label

-Look on ingredient list

102

Low-Fat

<3g per serving

103

Fat-free

< .5g per serving

104

What is the most common fat in food

TRIGLYCERIDE

105

Digestion of Lipids

Mouth: Salivary lipase, but has limited effect

Stomach: Gastric lipase acts on triglycerides containing short and medium length chains of fatty acid

Bile: Works as an emulsifier

106

Absorption of Fats

-Diffuses into the absorptive cells of the small intestine

-Short and medium chain (<12 carbons) fatty acids are water soluble

Enters the portal system and goes on to the liver

-Long chain fatty acids reform into triglyerides

Eventually enters the lymph system

107

Carrying lipids in the bloodstream

-Water in blood and lipids are incompatible

-Unique system of fat transportation is needed:

LIPOPROTEINS

108

chylomicrons

carries dietary fat from small intestine to cells

109

VLDL

Carries lipids made and taken up by the liver to cells

110

LDL

Carries cholesterol made by liver and from other sources to the cells

111

HDL

Contributes to cholesterol removal from cells and in rn excretes it from the body

112

Number one cause of death in America

Cardiovascular disease

Risk factors: Diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, diet, life style

Usually see after age 40 for men and 50 for women

113

Atherosclerosis

Inflammation, cholesterol deposits and plaque formation in arteries

can lead to heart attack

114

Diet and Heart disease Risk

Increase: Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, Salt, Red Meat

decrease: Fiber, Antioxidants, B vitamins, Nuts, Whole grains, Fish

115

Cancer

2nd leading cause of death in the U.S.

Risk can be reduced with diet and activity changes

High fat diets increase risk

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables decrease risk

Omega-3 rich diets help

116

Obesity

#1 health problem in America

excessive fat consumption= weight gain

high fat meals have more calories

decreases energy expenditures

Body mass index of 30+

117

Healthy amounts of:

Saturated Fat:

Cholesterol:

Fish (per week)

Saturated: <7-10%

Cholesterol: <200-30mg a day

2 servings fish/week

118

What are proteins composed of?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, AND nitrogen

119

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino Acids

120

What percent of your body weight comes from protein?

17%

(lean tissues, enzymes, hormones)

121

How many kcal/gram do proteins supply

4

122

Basic Amino acid structure contains what?

A carboxyl group

A Amino group

AND an R group

123

How many different Amino Acids do we have?

20

(Same structure, but have different R groups)

124

How many essential amino acids do we have? And what are the important ones to know?

9 essential

Isoleucine, leucine, valine

125

How many different Non-essential Amino Acids do we have?

11

126

Peptide bond

Water molecule is created

Very strong

127

Transamination/ Deamination

Pathway that allows for nonessential amino acids to be synthesized

Involves the removal/ transfer of an amino group

Process requires vitamin B-6

Reaction requires enzymes called aminotransferases

128

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Limited ability to metabolize phenylalanine

Enzyme deficiency

Results in mental impairment- sever mental retardation

Individuals have to modify diet

129

Sickle Cell Anemia

point mutation- glutamic acid--> Valine

Causes RBC to have sickle shape

Decreases function (oxygen carrying capacity)

Affects mostly African Americans (1/400 births)

130

Protein Organization

Order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape

proteins final shape determines its function in the body

131

**4 different levels of protein structure

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Quaternary

132

Denaturation

Causes the protein to unfold and lose its functional shape

ex. Acid, Alkalinity, heat, alcohol, oxidation, agitation

133

Protein synthesis

-DNA from nucleus

-Messenger RNA transfers it to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

-Ribosomes build the new protein

134

Digestion of Protein

Stomach: Gastrin hormone stimulates the release of pepsinogen from the chief cells in the stomach and also stimulates acid (HCL) production

-Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by the acid in the stomach

-Pepsin breaks down proteins into peptide

Small intestine: Stimulates the release of CCK (cholecystokinin)

-hormone in the walls of the small intestine travels to the pancreas

-pancreas releases the protein splitting enzymes into the duodenum: Trypsin, chymotrysin, carboxypeptidage

-The enzymes will break polypeptides into smaller...

135

Absorption of Amino Acids

Absorption takes place in the small intestine

Whole proteins are rarely absorbed

-except in infants (<5months old) and that can result in allergies

Amino Acids are transported via portal vein to the liver

136

Amino Acid Metabolism comes from what two sources?

Amino acids from food

Amino acids from spent body components (Old cells and hormones)

137

Amino Acid uses

Synthesis of new prteins

Glucose production

Synthesis of nitrogen containing compounds

conversion of Fat for storage

Energy production

138

what fraction of amino acids in the body are recycled?

2/3

1/3 is from consumption

139

Functions of protein

Structure

-Muscle

-Connective tissue

Maintain fluid balance

-protein in blood help pull fluid out of the tissues

Acid base balance

-pump chemical ions in and out of cells

-buffers

Glucose

-Carbon skeleton of amino acids is used to make glucose

Energy

-Provides very little energy to weight stable person (would happen with prolonged exercise and calorie restriction)

Satiety

Hormones and Enzymes

-composed of one Amino Acid or many amino acids

-all have a protein component

Immune function

-antibodies bind foreign invaders including bacteria

140

Protein needs: **Nitrogen Balance

-Because protein has nitrogen

determined by measuring the nitrogen containing compounds: urine, urea, hair, skin, feces, nails

141

Protein tunover

Constant in the body:

Breakdown-> rebuild-> repair

-normal adult make and degrades 250-300 grams a day

-normal consumption is 65-95 grams a day

-Amino acids are recycled

142

Insects in the human diet: what percent of the worlds population consumes insects?

80%

143

Benefits of consuming insects over animals...

-Far fewer resources needed to produce

-less water, less space, fewer greenhouse gases, lower carbon footprint

Great source of nutrition

144

Nutritional profile of insects

protein, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals (iron, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc, selenium, phosphorus)

All depends of: insect species, stage of life, and processing/preparation

145

Challeneges for Western people in including insects into their diets:

-appeal: marketing

-Processing: texture and flavor

146

What is the maine company that sells bugs?

Bugs for Dinner

products: chocolate covered, deep fried, candy, energy bars from cricket flour etc.

147

Dietary Protein: High quality

complete protein (contains all essential amino acids) ex. meat and cheese

148

Dietary protein: Low-quality

Incomplete protein (lacking one or more essential amino acids) ex. soy, corn, usually plant sources)

149

All-or-none principle

Have to have all essential amino acids to be able to use them. Either have them ALL or none will work

150

Limiting Amino Acid

The amino acid you are lacking, or producing/consuming the least of and therefore determines how much protein it can make

151

Complementary proteins:

Put two incomplete sources together that equal a complete

152

Animal Protein: what is the contribution to our protein intake?

70% of our protein intake

153

What are the top 5 contributers of protein in the U.S.?

Beef, poultry, milk, white bread, and cheese

154

What percentage of world wide protein comes from animals?

35% from animal sources

155

Recommendation for protein intake (how do you do the math?)

.8 grams/kg

A 200lbs individual= 91 kg

91x.8= 73 grams of protein is needed

156

RDA for protein is...

10-35% of the total daily calories

157

Plant sources:

NO CHOLESTEROL

provides carbs, minerals and fiber

limited saturated fats

Phytochemicals, antioxidants etc.

158

Protein energy malnutrition

PEM: is a condition resulting from regularly consuming Marasmus

159

Marasmus

basically starvation, condition of slow starvation (chronic)

-skin and bones appearance

-little or no subcutaneous fat

-Diets contain minimal amounts of calories and is protein deficient

160

Consequences of Marasmus

muscle wasting (including heart), impaired brain development, growth ceases, GI tract lining deteriorates, slow metabolism, lower body temp, very low activity

161

Kwashiorkor

"The disease the first child gets when the new child comes"

Goes from breast milk to starchy roots and gruels= low protein, plant fibers, caloric needs are barely met

Symptoms: Apathy, diarrhea, listlessness, failure to grow, lack of weight, withdrawal, changes in hair color, potassium deficiency, flaky skin, fatty liver...

162

Marasmus is___

while

Kwashiokor is ___

Slow

Fast

163

Digestion

Breakdown large molecules into small molecules the body can use

164

Absorption

Process of absorption of small molecules

For lipids: Digestion and absorption happens in Small Intestine

165

High protein diets

Atkins

South beach

Zone

Protein Power

Sugar buster

stillmans diets

166

Problems with high protein diet

Tend to be..

low in plant foods aka fiber, vitamins, phytochemicals

high in saturated fat and cholesterol

excessive intake of processes red meat is linked with colon cancer

burden on kidney

may increase calcium loss in urine

increases urine production- risk of dehydration

toxicity of amino acids

completion for absorptive cells

167

Good things about high protein diets

high satiety, protein digests slower

causes a quick drop in weight because of loss of water

168

Food protein allergies

Hypersensitive response, hives, itching etc.

Immune response, stimulate antibody production

Anaphylaxis, life threatening

*DIFFERENT FROM FOOD INTOLERANCE

169

* 8 common foods that account for 90% of all food allergies

-Peanuts

-Tree nuts (cashews and walnuts)

-Milk

-Eggs

-Fish

-Shellfish

-soy

-Wheat

170

How many Americans have peanut allergies?

3/500

171

Can allergies be outgrown?

Childhood allergies=YES

Adult allergies= NO

172

Most common adult allergies

Peanuts

Treenuts

Shellfish

173

Gelatin

Protein collagen extracted from skin, bones and connective tissues

-25-35% of protein in the body

NOT a complete protein

uses: gelatin desserts, gummy bears, marshmallows, ice cream yogurt

elective surgery ex. enlarged lips

174

Gluten

Gives elasticity to dough

helps dough rise, gives texture to breads and pastas

storage protein in some grains (wheat, barley, rye)

NOT found in rice, corn, soy, millet, buckwheat etc

175

Yogurt

Lactobacillus bacteria "eat" fermented lactose

milk has a high concentration of protein- mostly caseine

as fermentation progresses lactin acid is formed

lactin acid lowers milk pH and casein denatures

casein no longer soluble- so thickens milk

176

PDCAAS

Protein digestibility correlated amino acid score

177

cascin

in milk= really good digestibility and good rations of amino acid

178

Plant source of COMPLETE protein

Soy beans!!! #1 protein source in the world

-Quinoa

-Amaranth (Aztec)

0Chia

-Algae and Mycoprotein (fungus)

179

Quinoa

cultivated 3000 years ago by civilizations in the Andean region

wide spread in Northern Hemisphere

The seeds are consumed

High quality and highly digestible protein

all 9 essential amino acids

high fiber, Mg, Mn, Fe, Riboflavin

seed coat must be removed

180

How many Americans are vegetarian?

1/40

1/25 canadians

181

Fruitarians

eat mainly fruits, nuts, honey, vegetable oils

182

Pescetarian

Eat eggs, milk, and fish

183

Vegan

Eat NO animal products

184

Nutrients for Vegetarians to consider

iron, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, vitamin B 12

185

Vegitarian Health benefits

Decrease risk of chronic disease

CVD, hypertnsion, cancer, type 2 diabetes, obesity, longer life

When done right= Healthier Lifestyle

186

Soy Protein

tofu, tempeh, soy milk, soy flour, soy sauce

187

Isolated Soy protein

Dehulled

Defattted

complete amino acid profile and very digestable

great emulsifier

188

Soy protein caveats

conditionally essential amino acids

allergies

low in methionine

low in cysteine

GMO more than 90%

189

What percent of total fat on daily and meat products are saturated fatty acids?

40-60%

190

plant oils

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

191

Examples of Monounsaturated fat

canola oil, olive oil, and peanut oil

192

Digestion of Lipids

Starts in stomach

releases lipase which breaks down short chain lipids

Small intestine

lipase breaks down triglycerides into smaller products (monoglycerides)

bile from gallbladder emulsifies creating greater surface area= better break down

cell wall and pancreas creates enzymes to break down phospholipids

193

Absorption of lipids

Long chains: reform into triglycerides and eventually enter circulation via lymph system

Short chains: water soluble, and travel through portal vein to the liver directly

194

Polyunstaturated Fatty acid

Omega-3 Omega-6

Alpha-linolenic acid linoleicacid

Docosahexaenoic acid& Arachidonic acid

Eicosapenoic acid

195

Phospholipids in the body

cell membranes are composed primarily of phospholipids

receptors for enzymes

196

Cholesterol in the body

Important for estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D hormine

Building block for bile acid

197

Recomendation for fat intake

20-35% of total calories= 44-78 gm/day for a 200 kcal diet

198

What fats should we limit?

TRANS FAT, saturated fat, cholesterol

IF fat intake exceeds 30% of total calories, extra fat should be coming from monounsaturated fat

199

Big risk factora for cardiovascular disease

Total blood cholesterol is over 200mg/100 milliliters of blood

smoking

hypertension

diabetes

200

Amino acids allow for what to be readily available to the body

Nitrogen

201

Amino acids are formed of what?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

202

Branched-chain amino acids are primarily Aminos used by what for energy needs>

muscles

203

What percent of total protein requirment is supplied by essential amino acids? Adults and infabts

Adults: 11%

Infants: 40%

204

**Amino acids are linked by what?

Peptide bonds

205

What is the most nutrient-dense source of protein?

water-packed tuna= 87% calories as protein

206

What types of cells contain protein?

EVERY CELL IN THE BODY HAS PROTEIN

207

What is the only part of the body to resisit protein breakdown?

Brain