Chapter 9 - Solutions

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Chemistry
Chapter 9
updated 6 years ago by kstrand
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1

Solution

A homogeneous mixture in which the solute is made up of small particles (ions or molecules) that can pass through filters and semipermeable membranes.

2

Solute

The component in a solution that is present in the lesser amount.

3

Solvent

The substance in which the solute dissolves; usually the component present in greater amount.

4

Electrolyte

A substance that produces ions when dissolved in water; its solution produces electricity.

5

Nonelectrolyte

A substance that dissolves in water as molecules; its solution does not conduct an electrical current.

6

equivalent (Eq)

The amount of a positive or negative ion that supplies 1 mole of electrical charge.

7

Solubility

The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in exactly 100 g of solvent, usually water, at a given temperature.

8

Saturated

Contains the maximum amount of the solute that can dissolve at a given temperature.

9

Unsaturated

A solution that contains less solute than can be dissolved.

10

Effect of temperature on solubility

An increase in temperature increases the solubility of most solids in water, but decreases the solubility of gases in water.

11

Supersaturated

Contains more solute than solubility allows. Often happens when cooling.

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Henry's Law

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of that gas above the liquid. At higher pressures, there are more gas molecules available to enter and dissolve in the liquid.

13

Molarity (M)

Moles of solute per liter of solution.

14

Equation for dilution of solutions

C1V1 = C2V2 C= % concentration

M1V1 = M2V2 for Molarity

15

Colloids

Contain medium sized particles that pass through most filters but do not settle out or pass through permeable membranes - they can be separated by a semi-permeable membrane.

16

Suspensions

Have very large particles that settle out of solution. They can be filtered out of a solution.

17

Osmosis

The flow of water through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a lower solute to a solution with higher solute concentration.

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Osmotic pressure

The pressure that prevents the flow of water into the more concentrated solution.

19

Isotonic

A solution that has the same particle concentration and osmotic pressure as that of the cells of the body.

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Hypotonic

A solution that has a lower particle concentration and lower osmotic pressure than the cells of the body.

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Hypertonic

A solution that has a higher particle concentration and higher osmotic pressure than the cells of the body.

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Hemolysis

A swelling and bursting of red blood cells in a hypotonic solution because of an increase in fluid volume.

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Crenation

The shriveling of a cell because water leaves the cell when the cell is placed in a hypertonic solution.

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Dialysis

A process in which water and small solute particles pass through a semipermeable membrane.

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mass percent (m/m)

The grams of solute in exactly 100 g of solution

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mass/volume percent (m/v)

The grams of solute in exactly 100 mL of solution.

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volume percent (v/v)

A percent concentration that relates the volume of the solute in exactly 100 mL of solution.

28

Isotonic solution of glucose

5% (m/v) or 5 g of glucose per 100 mL of solution

29

Isotonic solution of NaCl

0.9% (m/v) or 0.9 g per 100 mL of solution

30

Hemodialysis

A mechanical cleansing of the blood by an artificial kidney using dialysis.