Zoology Vocabulary

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created 7 years ago by BrittanyBassett
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1

Grades of organization in organismal complexity (least to most complex)

1.Protoplasmic grade of organization

2. Cellular grade of organization

3. Cell-tissue grade of organization

4. Tissue-Organ grade of organization

5. Organ-System grade of organization

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Protoplasmic grade of organization

unicellular organisms

all functions confined within a single cell

protoplasm is differentiated into organelles that complete specialized functions

3

Cellular grade of organization

An aggregation of cells that are functionally differentialted

there is a dvision of labor among cells (reproduction, nutrition etc)

4

Cell-tissue grade of organization

an aggregation of cells that are organized into patterns or layers that perform a common function (known as a tissue) such as the nerve net

5

Tissue-organ grade of organization

an aggregation of cells into tissues and then into organs, usually composed of more than one tissue that perform a specialized function

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Organ-System grade of organization

organs work together to perform a function (known as an organ system

Systems are each associated with circulation, respiration, and digestion.

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Parenchyma

cheif functional cells of an organ

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Stroma

The supportive tissues

9

Spherical symmetry

Any plane passing through the center divides the body into equivalent or mirrored halves.

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Radial symmetry

applies to forms that can be divided into smaller halves by more than two planes passing through the longitudinal axis

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Sessile

to be fixed in one place

immobile

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Aboral

The end that is furthest away from the mouth

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Biradial Symmetry

only two planes passing through the longitudinal axis produce mirrored halves

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Radiata

animals that have bilateral larvae but become radial as adults

cnidaria and ctenophora

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Bilateral Symmetry

animals tat can divided along the saggital plane into two mirrored portions - right and left halves.

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Saggital Plane

Vertical plane through the center of the body

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Frontal plane

Horizantal plane through the center of the body

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Trasverse plane

Vertical plane from front to back of the animal

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cephalization

differentiation of a head

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Distal

parts of the body that are furthest from the middle of the body

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Proximal

parts of the body that are closet to the middle of the body

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Acoelomate

no body cavity
mesoderm forms solid mass of cell between ectoderm and endoderm

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Pseudocoelomate

body cavity not completely lined by mesoderm

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Blastocoel

a fluid filled cavity lined with cells that has no external opening

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Gastrula stage

When one side of the blastula pushes inward making a depression

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Gastrocoel

When the depression made during the gastrula stages forms a gut

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Blastopore

the external opening to the depression, typically becomes the mouth or the anus

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Endoderm

the innermost layer of tissues

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Mesoderm

The middle layer of tissues

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Ectoderm

The outermost layer of tissues

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Pseudocoelom

The blasocoel during the pseudocoelomate plan, name means "fake coelom" because it only partially surrounds the cavity

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coelom

body cavity

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Eucoleomates

a body cavity completely lined by mesoderm

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Radial Cleavage

the blastopore becomes the anus, the new opening forms the mouth, and the coelom forms.

sea urchins and Chordates

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Spiral Cleavage

the blastopore becomes the mouth, and cleavage is mosaic

molluscs, segmented worms, other taxa

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Segmentation

serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudial axis of the body.

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heterotrophic

They eat other things for food

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phagocytosis

infolding or invaination of the cell membrane oto surround a visinle food particle

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Phagotroph

heterotrophs that feed on visible particles

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osmotrophs

feeders that ingest soluable food

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flagellates

animals that use flagella as a form of locomotion

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Ciliates

animals that use ciliated body surfaces as their form of locomotion

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Amebas

animals that extend pseudopodia `