GIT

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by Annabelle
81 views
updated 5 years ago by Annabelle
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

How long is the alimentary canal?

8 m

24 ft

2

What is the largest endocrine organ in the body?

alimentary canal

3

What are the 3 glands that secrete digestive juice?

salivary gland

liver

pancreas

4

Where does the esophagus begin and end?

mouth to the stomach

5

Where is the cardiac sphincter?

between the esophagus and the stomach

6

where is the pyloric sphincter?

between the stomach and the duodenum

7

Where is the greater curvature of the stomach?

left lateral border

8

Where is the lesser curvature of the stomach?

medial ( right lateral)

9

Where is the lesser omentum?

from the lesser curve to the hilum of the liver

thin membrane

10

What artery supplies the lesser curvature?

left gastric artery

11

What artery supplies the greater curvature?

right & left

gastroepiploic

12

Where is the greater omentum?

extends inferiorly from greater curve

folds back on self

inserts on transverse colon

13

What is the greater omentum?

double fold membrane

14

What does the stomach consist of?

fundus

body

antrum

15

What are the layers of the alimentary canal?

serosa

muscularis

submucosa

mucosa

16

Where does the gastroesophageal junction lie to the aorta?

anterior

17

How are lesions classified in the alimentary canal?

by layer

18

What is the sonographic appearance of the gastroesophageal junction?

bullseye

19

What is the sonographic appearance of the pyloric antrum?

bulls eye

20

What is rugae?

idges produced by folding of the wall of the stomach

21

How is the stomach visualized with ultrasound?

fill with fluid

22

What are the sections of the duodenum?

superior - 1st

descending - 2nd

transverse - 3rd

ascending - 4th

23

What is the first part of the duodenum sometimes called?

bulb

24

The duodenum is ____ to visualize when filled with _____

easy

fluid

25

Where is valvulae conniventes located?

duodenum

jejunum

26

Where is the bulb of the duodenum located?

intraperitoneal

27

What is valvulae conniventes?

extends surface area

slows down bolus

28

Who long is the duodenum?

6 inch

29

How long is the jejunum?

8 ft

30

How long is the ileum?

12 ft

31

Explain the walls of the jejunum?

villi

valvulae conniventes

brunner's gland's

32

What are brunner's gland's?

produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion (containing bicarbonate)

33

What is the cecum?

beginning of colon (bulb)

bind ending tube

34

What is inferior to the cecum?

appendix

35

What is the significance of McBurney's point?

the point over the right side of the abdomen that corresponds to where the appendix lies

36

What is the route of the colon?

extends superiorly to hepatic flexure

left lateral to splenic flexure

inferiorly to sigmoid colon

through the sigmoid notch into rectum

37

What is the narrowest portion of the colon?

sigmoid notch

38

What part of the colon is the most distendable?

rectum

39

What is the most superior point of the colon?

splenic flexure

40

What is the colon called once it passes the iliac crest?

pelvic colon

41

What are the walls of the ileum?

smooth

42

What are the 5 layers of the colon?

sub serosal fatty tissue

muscularis

submucosa

mucosa 1

mucosa 2

43

What is the normal wall thickness of the colon?

4 mm

44

What method is used to image the colon?

fill with fluid

45

What is a gastric duplication cyst?

Lined with alimentary epithelium

well developed muscular walls

continuous with stomach

usually in women

46

What is the sonographic appearance of a gastric duplication cyst?

hypoechoic

47

Where are gastric duplication cyst found?

greater curvature

48

What does a gastric duplication cyst cause?

obstruction

49

What is a gastric bezoar?

swallowed ball

moveable intraluminal masses of congealed materials on UGI

50

What is a trichobezoar?

hair ball

GROSS

51

What is a phytobezoar?

vegetable ball

52

What is a concretion?

Ball

sand asphalt, shellac, barium

53

What is the most common benign tumor of the stomach?

Leiomyomas?

54

What is a gastric polyp?

solid immovable mass

asymptomatic when small

55

What is a Leiomyomas?

fibroid

seen as a mass similar to a carcinoma

asymptomatic when small

56

What is the sonographic appearance of a Leiomyomas?

hypoechoic

contiguous with muscularis

can have central necrosis

57

What is gastric carcinoma?

malignant tumor

more common in males

58

Where do most gastric tumors occur?

pylorus

59

What is the most common malignant gastric tumor?

gastric carcinoma

60

What is the 6th leading cause of death?

gastric carcinoma

61

What is the sonographic appearance of gastric carcinoma?

gastric wall thickening

multiple presentations

62

What is gastric lymphoma?

3% of stomach tumors

63

What is the sonographic appearance of gastric lymphomas?

gastric wall thickening with a space occupying lesion

multiple presentations

spoke wheels

target lesion

may become huge

NOT able to make call

64

What is a Leiomyosarcoma?

malignant fibroid

large intraluminal or submucosal mass of stomach wall

1% - 5 % of gastric tumors

50s & 60s

65

What is the sonographic appearance of Leiomyosarcoma?

large solid mass

hypoechoic

continuous with muscularis

can be circular space occupying lesions

can be mixed

66

What is the sonographic appearance gastric mets?

target lesions

gastric wall thickening with space occupying lesion

NOT able to make call

67

What causes gastric obstruction?

dilated loops of bowel

68

What is the sonographic appearance of gastric obstruction?

smooth echo free loops

may have hyperperistalsis

wall should be pliable

69

Where is the appendix located?

McBurney's point

inferior to cecum

70

What is appendicitis?

luminal obstruction & inflammation

71

What are the symptoms of appendicitis?

pain in McBurney's point

rebound

elevated WBC - leukocytes

72

What does appendicitis cause?

necrosis

perforation

abscess

peritonitis

73

What are the differentials for appendicitis?

gastroenteritis

mesenteric lymph nodes

inflamed Meckel's diverticulum

Mittelschmerz

regional enteritis

ovarian torsion

74

What is gastroenteritis?

inflammation of stomach

75

What is Mittelschmerz?

middle cycle pain

ovulation pain

76

What is Regional enteritis?

chrones disease

77

What is ovarian torsion?

twisting

78

What is the sonographic appearance of appendicitis?

hypoechoic sausage

target appearance

thickened muscular wall

lack of peristalis

lack of compressibility

sometimes air

sometimes adjacent abscess

sometimes fecalith

NOT compressable

79

What is a fecalith?

appendicolith

80

What is an abnormal diameter for the appendix?

>6 mm

81

What is an abnormal wall thickening of the appendix?

>2 mm

82

What is a mucocele of the appendix?

RARE

gross enlargement of appendix from mucoid substance

after appendicitis

after appendectomy

83

What is the cause of a mucocele of the appendix?

fecalith left behind

scaring

84

What is the sonographic appearance of mucocele of the appendix?

looks like complex mass

85

What is Meckel's diverticulum?

Occurs in ileum 2 feet from ileocecal valve

86

What causes a Meckel's diverticulum?

the yolk sac persists as a diverticulum of the ileum in an adult

87

What is sets the seen for problems with a Meckel's diverticulum?

incompressible -

unable to differentiate from appendicitis

88

What is Crohn's disease?

a regional enteritis

thickening of bowel wall

89

What does Crohn's disease affect?

terminal ileum & colon

90

Where does Crohn's disease usually occur?

ileum

deep in the lining

91

What is the ultrasound appearance of Crohn's disease?

rigidity to pressure

absent or sluggish peristalsis

92

What does the dorsal cavity contain?

cranial

spinal cord

93

Where is the ventral cavity?

front cavity

94

How is the ventral cavity divided?

thoracic

abdomen

95

What does thoracic cavity contain?

lungs and heart

96

What does the abdominopelvis cavity contain?

abdomen

pelvi

97

What does the abdominal cavity contain?

greater sac

lesser sac

98

What is the peritoneum?

double folded lining walls of the abdominal cavity

covers the abdominal viscera

omentum

99

How is the omentum divided?

greater omentum

lesser omentum

100

Where is the lesser omentum?

from the lesser curvature to liver and porta hepatis

101

Where is the Greater curvature?

greater curveture to the transverse colon

102

What is the omentum?

stretchy stuff holds vessels

103

What does the visceral peritoneum cover?

covers organs

104

What does the parietal peritoneum cover?

covers walls

105

What organs lie in the peritoneum?

liver

spleen

stomach

1st duodenum

transverse colon

small intestines

106

Where is the anterior subphrenic space?

Rt & Lt of falciform ligament

posterior to diaphragm

anterior to liver

107

Where is the Rt. posterior subphrenic space?

anterior to Rt kidney

posterior to liver

108

What is another name for the Rt. posterior subphrenic space?

morrison's pouch

109

Where is the peritoneal recesses?

duodenum becomes jejunum

ileum becomes cecum

110

Explain the inguinal canal in men.

abdominal to scrotum

spermatic cord runs through

111

Explain the inguinal canal in women.

round ligaments reach labia

112

Why is the inguinal canal important?

common place for hernia

113

Why do abdominal hernias occur?

weakness in abdominal wall peritoneal covered abdominal structure

114

Why are the potential spaces significant in sonographic exams?

fluid can collect

cause infection

115

What is the sonographic appearance of ascites?

anechoic

116

Where is the most dependent space in women?

posterior culdesac

117

What is ascites filled with?

serous fluid

118

What is the sonographic appearance of malignant or inflammatory ascites?

fine or coarse echoes

matting

clumping

loculated

complex

119

What is the path of ascites?

posterior cul de sac

paracolic gutters

surrounds organs

gas filled loops of bowel will float

when upstream it flows downstream

sonulucent

120

What is the sonographic appearance of peritoneal abscesses?

depends on age of abscess

elliptical mass

thick irregular margins

septations are common

floating debris is common

elevated WBC

121

How do you tell if an peritoneal abscess is producing gas?

dirty shadowing

bright echogenic area

122

What is the sonographic appearance of peritonitis?

multi-loculated abscess

123

What causes lesser sac abscesses?

pancreatic fluid leaks

124

Where is an intrarenal abscess?

renal cortex

125

What is a perinephric abscess?

intrarenal abscess that has leaked

126

What are appendiceal abscess?

complex mass in RLQ

127

When will an exam on abdominal wall mass be examined?

frequently post surgery

128

What transducer should be used for abdominal wall exams?

7.5 Mhz linear

129

What are the abdominal wall masses?

hematoma

lymphoceles

biloma

130

What is a biloma?

sharp edges

collection of bile

131

what is a lymphocele?

simple loculated cyst

132

What are the causes of peritoneal masses?

embryologic

traumatic

neoplastic

infectious

133

What is the sonographic appearance of peritoneal masses?

loculated

variable

134

What are the peritoneal masses?

abdominal cystic lesion

urinoma

urachal cyst

peritoneal mets

abdominal wall abscesses

hematomas

hernia

135

What is a urinoma?

urine filled cyst

136

What is a urachal cyst?

cystic mass between umbilical and bladder

137

What is the sonographic appearance of peritoneal mets?

multiple smooth nodules

138

What is the sonographic appearance of peritoneal lymphoma?

uniformly thick hypoechoic band shaped structure following anterolateral abdominal wall

139

Where is the retroperitoneal?

between peritoneal and posterior abdominal wall

140

What three spaces does the retroperitoneal consist of?

anterior pararenal

perirenal

posterior pararenal

141

What borders the anterior wall of the retroperitoneum?

posterior peritoneum

142

What borders the posterior wall of the retroperitoneum?

transversalis fascia

143

What borders the lateral wall of the retroperitoneum?

quadrum lumborum

144

The retroperitoneum lies between the diaphragm to the ______.

pelvic brim

145

What lies in the anterior pararenal space?

duodenum

pancreas

ascending colon

transverse colon

146

What lies in the posterior pararenal space?

iliopsoas muscle

branches of great vessels

lymphatics

147

What lies in the perirenal space?

gerota's fascia

kidneys

ureters

adrenals

perirenal fat

great vessels

148

What organs are in the perirenal space?

kidneys

ureters

adrenal gland

pancreas

aorta

IVC

lymph nodes

bladder

uterus

prostate

ascending colon

descending colon

duodenum 2, 3, 4

149

What is the preparation for a peritoneal exam?

none

150

What position should patient be in for a peritoneal exam?

prone or supine

151

Where are the adrenal glands located?

anterior

superior

medial to kidneys

152

What is the vascular supply of the adrenal glands

suprarenal branch of inferior phrenic artery

suprarenal branch of aorta

suprarenal branch of renal artery

153

How is the adrenal gland divided

cortex

medulla

154

What hormones does the cortex of the adrenal gland produce?

  • glucocorticoids
    • cortisone
    • hydrocortisone
  • mineralocorticoids
    • aldosterone
  • Sex hormones
    • androgens
    • estrogen
155

What does Conn's syndrome cause?

hypertension

156

What does cushing's disease affect?

muscle & bone disease

fertility problems in emn

masculating effects in women

157

What are the symptoms of addison's disease?

loss of appetite

bronzing

loss ofweight

too skinny

158

What is the cause of cushing syndrome?

glucocorticoids

159

What is the function of glucocorticoids?

diminish inflammatory reactions

glucose metabolism

160

What are the glucocorticoids?

cortisone

hydrocortisone

161

What causes Conn's syndrome?

↑ aldosterone

162

What are mineralocorticoids?

aldosterone

163

What is the function of mineralocorticoids?

produce aldosterone

regulate Na & Ca ions

Regulate PH

164

What does Conn's disease cause?

HTN

165

What are the two sex hormones?

androgens

estrogens

166

What does increased sex hormones cause?

androgenital syndrome

167

What is androgenital syndrome?

A genetic disorder present at birth characterised by a deficiency of the hormones aldosterone and cortisol and an overproduction of male sex hormones (androgens).

males - enlarged penis, small testes and early development

females - ambiguous genitalia, failure to menstruate, deep voice and excessive hair

168

What is virilization?

changes that make a male body different from a female body

169

What hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?

  • catecholamines
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
170

What is the function of Epinephrine?

acceleration of the heart

171

What is the function of Norepinephrine?

vasoconstrictor

172

What does increased catecholamines cause?

Pheochromocytoma

173

What is the sonographic appearance of the adrenal glands?

Triangular shape

Difficult to image

174

What are the pitfalls of examining the adrenal glands?

duodenum

esophagogastric junction

medial lobes of spleen

tail of pancreas

right crus

175

What is the sonographic appearance of an adrenal cyst?

early - simple cyst

become calcified

hemorrhage - complex

176

What pathology of the adrenal glands cause masses?

addison's

adrenogenital

Conn's disease

Cushing's

Waterhouse-Friedrichson's

Pheochromocytoma

neuroblastoma

177

What is Waterhouse-Friedrichson's syndrome?

bilateral hemorrhage of the adrenal glands

178

What causes Waterhouse-Friedrichson's syndrome in a baby?

difficult labor

179

What is Pheochromocytoma?

large bulky tumor

intermittent by hypertension

180

What causes Pheochromocytoma?

increased catecholamines

181

What is a neuroblastoma?

huge pediatric tumor