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1

What is the most common acute abdominal inflammatory process in children (after gastroenteritis)?

Appendicitis

2

How many women will develop breast cancer?

1 in 8

3

Most common childhood renal cystic disease.

Multicystic Dysplasia Disease

4

Most common tumor of the renal collecting system.

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

5

Most common solid renal mass in children

Wilms Tumor

AKA Nephroblastoma

6

Most common renal cortical mass

Adenoma

Benign counterpart of Renal Cell Carcinoma

7

Most common benign renal tumor

Angiomyolipoma

8

Most common solid kidney mass in neonate

Mesoblastic Nephroma

more common in males

Benign counterpart of Wilms.

9

Benign rare mass most common in adult men

Oncocytoma

10

Most common renal disease to cause renal failure

Acute Tubular Necrosis

11

85% of renal malignancies, twice as common in 60-70 males

Renal Cell Carcinoma

AKA

hypernephroma

adenocarcinoma

nephrocarcinoma

Von Grawitz tumor

12

Which type of renal lymphoma is more common?

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

13

start in the cells of the fat that surrounds the kidney.

They are more common in middle-aged women.

can grow to be quite large

Renal Lipoma

14

What is the most common locations of a Pancreatic Pseudocyst?

lesser sac

15

Most common functioning islet cell tumor. 90-95% benign. Mostly in body and tail

Insulinoma (B Cell tumor)

16

2nd common functioning islet cell tumor.

Gastrinoma

17

malignant mass

Usually originate from pancreatic duct

slow growing

mostly in females

Cysatadenocarcinoma

18

Where does almost all breast pathology originate?

TDLU

19

How does breast cancer most frequently spread?

blood flow routes

20

What is the most common metastasis of Breast Cancer?

bone

lung

liver

21

What is the most common cancer to metastasize to the breast?

Melanoma

22

Most common benign solid tumor of the breast.

Fibroadenoma

Estrogen related tumor.

Primarily in young women

23

Most common non-invasive breast cancer.

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DSIS)

Arises from the TDLU, malignant changes of the ductal epithelium without extension past basement membrane.

24

Very common in women ages 35 to 50

Results from obstructed duct or hormonal changes

Regress after menopause

Presentation: breast lump, pain & tenderness

simple cyst

25

Benign tumor originating from the ductal epithelium and projecting into the lumen of the duct. Commonly in women ages 35 to 55.

Intraductal Papilloma

26

What vein is commonly blamed for breast cancer metastasis to ribs?

Intercostal Veins - communicates with vertebral veins

27

What would be a common cause for elevation of AST?

Acute hepatitis

Cirrhosis

Infectious Mononucleosis

28

What is the Most common Glycogen storage disease?

type I – Von Gierke’

29

Where is Budd-Chiari syndrome most common?

Asia

30

A hepatic cyst is usually a solitary, non-parasitic cyst of the liver. solitary or multiple. More common in females

Simple hepatic cysts

31

Very small cysts that range from .2 to 2.5 cm. They are most common in patients with severe liver disease

Peribiliary Cysts

32

A pus-forming abscess caused by bacteria. The most common bacteria is Escherichia coli and anaerobes.

The most frequent organism causing the infection is Escherichia coli or anaerobes

Pyogenic abscess

33

Benign congenital tumor of the liver. Most common and most frequent in females

Cavernous hemangioma

34

Liver tumor of glandular epithelial tissue. More commonly in women taking oral contraceptives.

Liver cell adenoma

35

This is the second most common benign liver mass in women over 40 years of age.

Focal nodular hyperplasia

36

This is the most common primary malignant Liver neoplasm

Hepatocellular carcinoma

37

This is the most common form of neoplastic involvement of the liver. The primary sites include colon, breast, and lung

Metastatic disease

38

The most common reason for a liver transplant

cirrhosis

39

What is the cause of the most common complication of a liver transplant?

hepatic arteries

40

Most common Benign neoplasms, overgrowth of gallbladder epithelium.

Ademomas

usually near fundus

41

Rare cancer of the gallbladder with almost 100% mortality rate

Gallbladder Carcinoma

42

The 5th most common GI malignancy in 60-70 caucasians.

Gallbladder Carcinoma

43

What is the most common splenic disorder?

splenomegaly

44

What is the most common cause of Splenic Congestion?

portal hypertension

45

What is the most important measurement of the spleen?

superior to inferior

12 -13 cm

46

What is the most common cause of Splenic Congestion?

portal hypertension

47

Most common benign solid thyroid lesion in adults.

Degenerating follicular adenoma

48

Most common thyroid abnormality

Nontoxic Simple Goiter

49

What is the most common cause of a Nontoxic Simple Goiter?

Iodine deficiency

50

Most common thyroid malignancy

Papillary Carcinoma

Prominent cause of thyroid cancer in children

51

Most common cause of hyperparathyroidism

Parathyroid Adenoma

parathyroid enlarges into a tumor and excretes to much parathyroid hormone

52

What is the most common cause of acute scrotal pain and tenderness?

epididymitis

53

What is the most common cause of painless scrotal swelling?

hydrocele

54

What is the most common germ cell tumor in infants?

yolk sac tumors

55

Where are most malignant testicular masses found?

intratesticular

56

Where are most benign testicular masses found?

extratesticular

57

What is the common age for testicular torsion?

12 - 18

58

most common place for hernia

inguinal canal

59

What is the most common ischemic lesion in a premie brain?

Periventricular leukomalacia

60

Where is a most common site for hemorrhage on the caudate nucleus?

head

61

This is the most common site for hemorrhage in the neonate infant.

Caudothalmic Groove.

62

The most common cause is aquaduct stenosis.

Communicating Hydrocephalus

63

Most common hemorrhage in preterm, affecting 30 to 50% of infants born before 32 weeks. The most common site is the interthalmic groove. Can cause obstruction in the choroid plexus

Subependymal-Intraventricular Hemorrhages

64

Most common ischemic lesion in the immature brain.

Periventricular Leukomalacia

AKA Multifocal White Matter Necrosis,

Highly echogenic areas in the white matter

65

A common complication of purulent meningitis

Ventriculitis

66

The most severe form of Holoprosencephaly

Alobar Holoprosencephaly

67

What is the single most important determination in a spinal exam?

identification of the conus medularis

68

the least common form of spina bifida.

Spina Bifida Meningocele

In this form, the vertebrae develop normally, but the meninges are forced into the gaps between the vertebrae

69

Why does ascites most frequently occur?

Chronic liver disease

70

What is the most important ligament reinforcing the hip joint?

iliofemoral ligament

71

What is the most important factor influencing of treatment of developmental displacement of the hips?

the age at diagnosis

treatment should begin bfore patient walks

72

Which pouch is the most dependent?

pouch of douglas

73

When is ovarian torsion most likely to occur?

young girls primarily

most occur before the age of 20

74

What is the most common pediatric Ovarian germ cell tumor?

dermoid

Benign cystic teratoma

75

What is the most frequent complication of a ovarian teratoma?

torsion

76

What are the 3 most common causes of pediatric jaundice?

neonatal hepatitis

biliary atresia

choledocal cyst

77

What is absent in most common forms of pediatric biliary atresia?

gallbladder

78

most common benign vascular lesion of ealry childhood

pediatric hemangioendothelioma

79

What is the 3rd most common abdominal malignancy in children after Wilm's disease?

Hepatoblastoma

80

What is the most common blastoma?

Wilm's tumor

81

What is the most common cause of recurrent UTI in men?

prostatitis

82

What is the most common malignant neoplasm of prostate?

prostatic adenocarcinoma

83

What is the 2nd most common abdominal malignancy in children after Wilm's tumor?

neuroblastoma - adrenal

84

What is the most common acute abdominal disorder in early childhood?

Intussesception

85

What is the most common cause of a splenic abscess?

endocarditis

86

What is the most common benign stomach tumor?

leiomyomas

87

What is the most common malignant gastric tumor?

gastric carcinoma

88

What is the 6th leading cause of death?

gastric carcinoma

89

What is the most common type of obstruction of the upper urinary tract?

UPS

90

What is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in the male neonate?

Posterior Urethral Valves

91

What is the most common solid kidney mass in neonates?

Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma

92

What is the most common solid renal mass of childhood?

Wilm's tumor

93

What is the second most common abdominal tumor of childhood?

Neuroblastoma

94

What is the most common cause of jaundice in pediatric patients?

biliary atresia