research methodologies

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What are the 10 properties of the Nuremberg Code (1947)?

  1. Informed voluntary consent
  2. Results must be for the Good of Society
  3. Anticipated results should justify the experiment
  4. Avoid unnecessary phys/mental sufferings
  5. No experiment should be conducted if high possibility of death/disabling injury
  6. The degree of risk shouldn't outweigh the benefits
  7. Preparations should be taken to prevent all remote chances of injury
  8. Only qualified scientific personnel should conduct experiments
  9. The subject has the right to quit the experiment if Phys/mental effects are too demanding or impossible
  10. If at any point the scientist believes there is a high chance of injury, the experiment must be terminated by the researcher

What are the 4 additions to the Nuremberg Code, called the Helsinki Declaration (1964)?

  1. An experiment protocol must be approved by an ethics board
  2. Population the study is done for should stand to benefit from the results
  3. Privacy and Confidentiality of individuals information
  4. Legal guardian must give consent for "incompetent" participants

What is the Belmont Report, and why was it created(1979)?

Result of the Tuskagee syphilis study in 1979.

Serves as a fundamental document for current patient regulations


What are the 3 principles to the Belmont Report?

  1. Respect for persons: Personal Dignity and autonomy (Protection)
  2. Beneficence: Protect individual from harm by maximizing anticipated benefits and minimizing possible risks.
  3. Justice: requires that the benefits/ burdens of the research be distributed fairly. (all have same procedure)

What are the 3 types of probability sampling?

  1. Simple random sampling
  2. Stratified random sampling
  3. Cluster sampling

What are the 2 types of Non-probability sampling?

  1. Purposive sampling
  2. Convenience sampling

What are the 3 Key points to Simple random sampling?

  1. Every member has equal probability of being selected
  2. difference between sampling with/without replacement
  3. Usual procedure: fishbowl technique

What are the 2 key points of Stratified random sampling?

  1. Divide the population in subgroups based on a characteristic you wish to control
  2. No sampling characteristic can appear in more than one subgroup

How does systematic sampling work? (version of simple sampling)

  1. researcher chooses 1/k of the sampling frame with K being constant. eg. k=4, therefore every 4th person will be chosen

What is cluster sampling?

  1. The sampling unit is naturally occurring members of the population. Eg. classroom, sports team.

What are 3 key points to non probability sampling? And the 2 Cons presented in NP sampling?

  1. sample not selected at random
  2. probability of being chosen is not known
  3. generalizing findings is very limited

1. Population is very specific

2. Non representative of the population


How are participants selected in a purposive sampling technique?

Sample is selected because it possesses certain characteristics that the researcher wants. Eg. Smokers


How are members selected in convenience sampling?

Sample is selected on the basis of being accessible and convenient,. Eg. a class one is teaching


How is power of statistical testing ranked?

It is the probability that the test will reject the null hypothesis

the greater the power the more likely the null hypothesis will be rejected. Generally, the larger the sample size, the more power of statistics being used.


What does it mean by sample size being inversely related to sampling error?

The larger the sample size, the greater the likelihood that the same is rep. of the population .

If there is little variability among participants = a small sample size will suffice

If there is high variability among participants = sample size must be larger to account for this


Why do descriptive and correlational research have larger samples than experimental research? (5)

  1. Nature of study
  2. statistical considerations
  3. variability of population
  4. number of treatment groups
  5. practical factors

What is experimental research?

  1. investigates cause and effect relationships between variables, Manipulates at least 1 independent variable.
  2. answers the "what if" question
  3. Controls prevalent variables
  4. observation of the effect on manipulated ind. variable and its effect on dependent variable.

What are the 5 p's in exp.research?

Prior planning prevents poor performance


What are the 14 systematic stages of exp. research planning?

  1. State the research question
  2. Determine if it actually is an experimental methods quesiton
  3. list independent variables
  4. list dependent variables
  5. State a tentative hypothesis
  6. List the measures to be used
  8. brainstorm for confounding variables
  9. Revise hypothesis
  10. Design the experiment
  12. Conduct the study
  13. Analyze data
  14. Document through a research report

What is internal validity?

Technical soundness of a study (control of confounding variables)

Internal validity is considered the basic minimum for exp. research.

Did experimental manipulated X produce a change in the dependent variable Y?


What is external validity?

Generalization of the results of the study


What is characterized as an inventory?

an instrument with a list of statements in which participants mark in a yes/no, true/false way.


What are the characteristics of a Likert scale

measures the degree to which an individual exhibits a particular attitude, belief or interest


What are the characteristics of a semantic differential scale

participants make judgements based on the use of a list of bipolar adjective in a spectrum style rankling system


What are the characteristics of a rating scale

captures ones impression or behaviour to a particular concept. participants choose one response category from several options provided in a *predetermined* scale.

  1. numerical rating
  2. verbal frequency
  3. forced ranking (1-10)

What are the characteristics of a structured-alternative scale?

designed to reduce the tendency to provide a socially desirable response. 4 point scale in which one must first decide which of two opposing statements best describes them and then choose whether the response is kind of true or really true answered with a yes-no, true-false.; response or by multiple choice


What are the 3 things a researcher must keep in mind when using a data collecting instrument?

      • Objectivity
        • Degree to which multiple scores agree on the values of collected measures.
      • Reliability
        • Degree to which a measure is consistent.
      • Validity
        • Degree to which interpretations of test scores lead to correct conclusions

What are the steps to developing a new instrument?(7)

  1. review the literature
  2. develop a design
  3. obtain opinions of experts
  4. revise the design plan
  5. pilot test the instrument
  6. further revisions?
  7. finalize the instrument

What is the definition of Privacy?

refers to the capacity of individuals control and under what conditions others have access to their information


What is the definition of Confidentiality?

refers to the treating of the subjects information or response in a manner that it is not linked to the individual themselves. a numbering system*


What are the 8 ethical obligations in research one must follow?

  1. researcher is responsible for their subjects
  2. researcher is responsible for their own actions and actions of the aides
  3. subjects must provide an informed consent
  4. researcher must protect subjects from harm
  5. must maintain anonymity and confidentiality
  6. subjects should not be coerced
  7. researcher is responsible for subject data
  8. must provide honest disclosure of results

What are the 3 questions to consider when participants are needed in experimental and descriptive research?

  • 1. Are the research participants appropriate for the research question?
  • 2. Are the research participant’s representative of the population of interest?
  • 3. How many research participants should be used

What is population validity?

the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from the sample of the population


What is the 5 steps of a sampling process?

  • identify the target population
  • identify the accessible population (sampling frame)
  • determine the desire sample size
  • select the specific sampling technique
  • implement the sampling plan

What are the 8 threats to internal validity?

  1. History- events occurring during the experiment that are not part of the treatment
  2. Maturation – biological/psychological processes within participants that may change due to the passing of time. E.g., Fatigue, hunger, aging
  3. Testing – the effects of one test upon subsequent administrations of the same test
  4. Instrumentation – changes in testing instruments, rates, or interviewers.
  5. Statistical regression – the fact that groups selection the basis of extreme scores are not as extreme on subsequent testing, e.g. handedness scores before/after
  6. Selection bias – identification of comparison groups in other than a random manner
  7. Experimental mortality – loss of participants so groups are no longer representative of the population
  8. Interaction among factors – factors can operate together to influence experimental results.

What are the 4 threats to external validity?

  1. Interaction effect of testing – the fact that the pretest may make the participants more aware/sensitive to the upcoming treatment, e.g. call for left-handers.
  2. Interaction effect of selection bias – when participants selected in a bias manner react uniquely to a treatment.
  3. Reactive effects of experimental setting – the fact that treatments in constrained laboratory settings may not be effective in less constrained, real-world settings. E.g. PD patients walking to music in the gym vs. the street
  4. Multiple-treatment interference – when participants receive more than one treatment, the effects of previous treatments may influence subsequent ones.

What does it mean to control for physical manipulation?

    1. Researcher attempts to control all aspects of the research, except the experimental treatment.
    2. Possible in animal research, difficult to meet in human research.

What does it mean to control for selective manipulation?

    1. Intent is to increase likelihood that treatment groups are similar at the beginning of study.
    2. Matched pairs design (e.g. sex, age, education)
    3. Counterbalanced design: all groups receive the treatment but in different orders.

What does it mean to control for statistical techniques?

    1. Applied when physical manipulation or selective manipulation is not possible
    2. Differences among treatment groups are known to exist at beginning of the study.
    3. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)

What are the 7 common sources of error?

  1. Hawthorne effect
    1. Merely being a participant affects behaviour
  2. Placebo effect
    1. Participants may believe that the experimental treatment is supposed to change them, so they respond to the treatment with a change in performance. (sugar pill)
  3. John henry effect
    1. Research participants in the control group try harder just because they are in the control group. (set a higher bar for experimental participant)
  4. Rating effect
    1. Errors associated with ratings of a participant or group
      1. Halo effect: initial impressions influence future ratings/scores
        1. Overrate error
        2. Underrate error
      2. Central tendency error: the researcher rates everyone in the middle.
  5. Experimenter bias effect
  6. Participant-research interaction effect
    1. Gender/ race of the researcher may influence the results.
  7. Post- hoc effect
    1. Assuming a cause-effect relationship where there is NOT one

What are the 8 types of research methodologies?

  1. Survey
  2. developmental
  3. case study
  4. correlational
  5. normative
  6. observational
  7. action
  8. causal comparative

What should you consider when developing a research questionnaire?

focus, brevity and simplicity**

  1. Should be directions
  2. an example question and answer
  3. easy to understand questions(clear fully written)
  4. simple vocabulary
  5. keep in mind attention spam. (brevity)
  6. are the questions reliable and valid? (most time consuming)

What are some common errors (4) in making a questionnaire?

  1. using compound questions (2 questions in one)
  2. using jargon or technical language
  3. asking a leading question
  4. double negatives

What are the characteristics of a sound hypothesis?

  1. Clear and simple
  2. based on theory/research
  3. at least 2 variables
  4. testable
  5. must be able to be refuted

What are the rules of thumb regarding a hypothesis?

  1. Research which asks DIFFERENCE or RELATIONSHIP questions should always have hypothesis
  2. Research which asks DESCRIPTIVE question ( with no comparison across groups) may not need hypotheses