Human Disease Ch 9

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1

hyperplasia

increase in cell number

2

hypertrophy

increase in cell size

3

neoplasm

uncontroled grown of cells

can be benign or malignant

like hyperplasia but without a stimulus to grow

4

tumor

nonspecific term for lump or swelling

same thing as neoplasm

5

metastasis

discontinuous spread of a malignant neoplasm to distant sites in body

6

malignant

capable of metastasis

7

cancer

any malignant neoplasm or tumor

8

suffix oma

doesn't necessarily mean cancerous

doesn't distinguish between malignant or benign but is usually used with malignant

ie carcinoma sarcoma etc

9

where does cancer rank?

second leading cause of death in US

lung cancer being prominent in both sexes

10

benign

slow growth rate

expands

spreads locally

well differentiated cells

11

malignant

spreads rapidly

infiltrates other sites

metastasis by bloodstream or lymphatic channel

poorly differentiated cells

12

cancer cells have ____ core

necrotic

13

cancer cells exhibit ___

angiogensis ie they make new blood cells

14

progression of neoplastic growth

dysplasia

carcinoma in situ (CIS)

progression to invasion

15

dysplasia

premalignant site

tissue is atypical

usually epithelium

doesn't necessarily progress to malignancy

16

carcinoma in situ (CIS)

cancer "in place"

not invasive as basement membrane is intact

is curable via complete excision (removal)

17

etiology of cancer

damaged DNA due to mutations

occurs in germline or somatic cells

18

how are mutations acquire?

carcinogens ie virus radiation uv light tobacco alcohol, environment

inherited via BRAC1/2

spontaneous-as cells divide random mutations occur

19

germline vs somatic mutations

germline will be caried to offspring, somatic won't

20

proto-oncogenes

usually involved in normal cell growth/division

21

oncogene

a proto-oncogene that has been activated by mutation

ie C-myc, Ras

22

tumor suppressor genes

stop formation of tumors

ie P53

23

P53

guardian of the genome

is mutated in 50% of all cancers

regulates transcription of 50 different genes

activated 53 levls rise rapidly if DNA is damaged or repair intermediates accumulate

decides whether or not a cell continues its normal cycle

24

genes regulating apoptosis

programmed cell death

influence survival time of cells

if these genes fail cells will continue to accumulate and eventually form a tumor

25

proapoptotic cells

make cells die, if they are mutated cells don't die and become cancerous

26

antiapoptotic cells

if there are too many cells don't die

27

philadelphia chromosome abnormalty

best known abnormality

chromosomes 9 and 22 switch locations

95% of myelogenous leukemia

oncogene on chromosome 9 exhibits increased activity

28

warning signs of cancer (CAUTION)

Change in bowel/bladder habits

A sore that doesn't heal

Unusual bleeding or discharge

Thickening or lump

Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

Obvious change in wart or mole

Nagging cough or hoarseness

29

tumor associated antigen tests

CEA

alpha fetoprotein

human chorionic gonadotropin

acid phosphatase

all detect cancerous secretions in blood via lab tests

30

pros and cons of antigen tests

pro-can monitor treatment

con-not the best for diagnosis

31

cancer treatment depends on ____ and ___

grading and staging

32

grading

a microscopic assessment, ie how abnormal do cells look

33

staging

a behavioral assessment ie size and extent of metastasis

is used to help plan the treatment

34

Gleasons Grading System

1-5, 5 being worst

well differentiated to poorly differentiated

35

tumor staging system

Stage 0- CIS

1-not spreading into surrounding tissue but larger

2-may extend into nearby tissue

3- spread to nearby lymph nodes but not other parts of body

4- spread to distant tissue and organs

36

cancer treatmentsq

surgery

radiation

chemotherapy

hormone therapy

immunotherapy

angiogensis therapy

37

surgery

to prevent cancer

remove abnormal tisue

biopsy for diagnosis and staging

lymph node sampling

debulking surgery

pallative surgery

38

hormone therapy

receptor activation or blockage

interferes with cellular growth and signaling

39

ionizing radiation goals

eradicate cancer witou excessive toxicity

avoid damage of normal structures

damages cancer cells DNA

40

chemotherapy

use of nonselective cytotoxic drugs that target vital cellular machinery or metabloic pathways critical to both malignant and normal cell growth and replication

can damage healthy cells

41

immunotherapy

stimulating own immune system to work harder/smarter to attack cancer cells

gives immune system components to attack cancer cells, ie antibodies

42

cancer screening

lung cancer-chest radiographs

prostate-PSA

breast- mammography at age 40

cervical- pap smear

colorectal-fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy after 50 years

43

lifestyle choices to reduce cancer risk

don't use tobacco

sun safety

diet

drink alcohol in moderation

exercise regularly

vaccination

practice safe sex

self examinations