Ch 14 Vocabulary

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1

Agoraphobia

A fear of going out to public places.

2

Anorexia nervosa

Eating disorder characterized by intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose weight.

3

Antisocial personality disorder

A type of personality disorder marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms.

4

Anxiety disorders

A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.

5

Availability heuristic

Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.

6

Bipolar disorder

(formerly known as manic-depressive disorder) Mood disorder marked by the experience of both depressed and manic periods.

7

Bulimia nervosa

Eating disorder characterized by habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise.

8

Catatonic schizophrenia

A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.

9

Comorbidity

The coexistence of two or more disorders.

10

Concordance rate

The percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives that exhibit the same disorder.

11

Conjunction fallacy

An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.

12

Conversion disorder

A somatoform disorder characterized by a significant loss of physical function (with no apparent organic basis), usually in a single organ system.

13

Culture-bound disorders

Abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups.

14

Cyclothymic disorder

Exhibiting chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance.

15

Delusions

False beliefs that are maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality.

16

Diagnosis

Distinguishing one illness from another.

17

Disorganized schizophrenia

A type of schizophrenia in which particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen.

18

Dissociative amnesia

A sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting.

19

Dissociative disorders

A class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.

20

Dissociative fugue

A disorder in which people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity.

21

Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

A type of dissociative disorder characterized by the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities. Also called multiple-personality disorder.

22

Dysthymic disorder

A chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to merit diagnosis of a major depressive episode.

23

Eating disorders

Severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight concerns and unhealthy efforts to control weight.

24

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population.

25

Etiology

The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.

26

Generalized anxiety disorder

A psychological disorder marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat.

27

Hallucinations

Sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus, or gross distortions of perceptual input.

28

Hypochondriasis

A somatoform disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.

29

Insanity

A legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.

30

Involuntary commitment

A civil proceeding in which people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will.

31

Major depressive disorder

Mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure.

32

Manic-depressive disorder

See Bipolar disorder.

33

Medical model

The view that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease.

34

Mood disorders

A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes.

35

Multiple-personality disorder

See Dissociative identity disorder.

36

Negatively skewed distribution

A distribution in which most scores pile up at the high end of the scale.

37

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

A type of anxiety disorder marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions).

38

Panic disorder

A type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly.

39

Paranoid schizophrenia

A type of schizophrenia that is dominated by delusions of persecution along with delusions of grandeur.

40

Personality disorders

A class of psychological disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning.

41

Phobic disorder

A type of anxiety disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.

42

Positive symptoms

Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.

43

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Disturbed behavior that is attributed to a major stressful event but that emerges after the stress is over.

44

Prevalence

The percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period.

45

Prognosis

A forecast about the probable course of an illness.

46

Representativeness heuristic

Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.

47

Schizophrenic disorders

A class of psychological disorders marked by disturbances in thought that spill over to affect perceptual, social, and emotional processes.

48

Somatization disorder

A type of somatoform disorder marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.

49

Somatoform disorders

A class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors.

50

Undifferentiated schizophrenia

A type of schizophrenia marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms.