Review Test 3
2) The correct sequence of sensory processing is
A) sensory adaptation → stimulus reception → sensory transduction → sensory perception.
B) stimulus reception → sensory transduction → sensory perception → sensory adaptation.
C) sensory perception → stimulus reception → sensory transduction → sensory adaptation.
D) sensory perception → sensory transduction → stimulus reception → sensory adaptation.
E) stimulus reception → sensory perception → sensory adaptation → sensory transduction.
3) Sensory-transducing cells that fire both graded potentials and
action potentials are found in
6) Tastes and smells are distinct kinds of environmental information
A) neural projections from taste receptors reach different parts of the brain than the neural projections from olfactory receptors.
B) the single area of the cerebral cortex that receives smell and taste signals can distinguish tastes and smells by the pattern of action potentials received.
C) tastant molecules are airborne, whereas odorant molecules are dissolved in fluids.
D) distinguishing tastant molecules requires learning, whereas smell discrimination is an innate process.
E) odorants bind to receptor proteins, but none of the tastant stimuli bind to receptors.
7) Stimuli alter the activity of excitable sensory cells via
8) Choose the correct sequence of the following events leading to the
sensory processing of a stimulus.
A) 1 → 2 → 3 → 4
B) 1 → 4 → 2 → 3
C) 2 → 4 → 1 → 3
D) 3 → 1 → 2 → 4
E) 3 → 1 → 4 → 2
9) Immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin might feel itchy.
However, this perception soon fades due to
A) sensory adaptation.
C) the increase of transduction.
D) reduced motor unit recruitment.
E) reduced receptor amplification.
10) A given photon of light may trigger an action potential with
thousands of times more energy because the signal strength is
A) the receptor.
B) a G protein.
C) an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
D) sensory adaptation.
E) triggering several receptors at once.
11) The muscle spindle is
A) an actin-myosin complex.
B) a troponin-tropomyosin complex.
C) axons wound around muscle fibers.
D) a group of dendrite-encircled muscle fibers.
E) a muscle cell that makes up a muscle group.
14) The cellular membrane across which ion flow varies during
auditory transduction is the
A) tectorial membrane.
B) tympanic membrane.
C) round-window membrane.
D) hair cell membrane.
E) basilar membrane.
16) The pathway leading to the perception of sound by mammals begins
A) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the basilar membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.
B) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the tympanic membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.
C) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the tectorial membrane, coming in contact with the basilar membrane.
D) hair cells of the organ of Corti coming in contact with the tectorial membrane as a result of fluid waves in the cochlea causing vibrations in the round window.
E) hair cells on the tympanic membrane that stimulate the tectorial membrane neurons, leading to the auditory section of the brain.
17) The cochlea is an organ of auditory transduction that contains
A) fluid and cells that can undergo mechanosensory transduction.
B) air and cells that produce wax.
C) air and small bones that vibrate in response to sound waves.
D) fluid with stacks of chemosensory cells.
E) air and statocysts activated by movement.
21) Mechanoreceptors that react to low frequency waves are part of
A) human sense of taste.
B) pain receptors in birds.
C) human sense of smell.
D) lateral line systems in fish.
E) eyes in arthropods.
22) The lateral line system in fish transduces sensory information in
a manner that, among these choices, is most similar to
A) human vision.
B) human olfaction.
C) human gustation.
D) human vestibular sense.
E) human thermoreception.
23) The generation of action potentials in olfactory neurons
initiated by odors drawn in the nasal cavity is an example of
B) sensory transduction.
C) sensory adaptation.
E) lateral inhibition.
24) Tastes and smells are similar in that
A) both types of stimuli are present in thousands of different chemicals.
B) both types of stimuli must be dissolved in a body fluid before they can be detected.
C) both types of stimuli are proteins (that is, molecules of very large size and high molecular weight).
D) both types of stimuli evoke action potentials in the cells to which they bind.
26) Most of the chemosensory neurons arising in the nasal cavity have
axonal projections that terminate in the
A) gustatory complex.
B) anterior hypothalamus.
C) olfactory bulb.
D) occipital lobe.
29) Proteins coded by a very large family of related genes are active
in the sensory transduction of
A) gustatory stimuli.
B) olfactory stimuli.
C) visual stimuli.
D) auditory stimuli.
30) It can be very difficult to select an angle for sneaking up to a
grasshopper to catch it because grasshoppers have
A) excellent hearing for detecting predators.
B) compound eyes with multiple ommatidia.
C) eyes with multiple fovea.
D) a camera-like eye with multiple fovea.
31) Compared to viewing a distant object, viewing an object held
within 5 cm of the eye requires a lens that
A) has been flattened, as a result of contraction of the ciliary muscles.
B) has been made more spherical, as a result of contraction of the ciliary muscles.
C) has been flattened, as a result of relaxation of the ciliary muscles.
D) has been made more spherical, as a result of relaxation of the ciliary muscles.
32) Sensory transduction of light/dark information in the vertebrate
retina is accomplished by
A) ganglion cells.
B) amacrine cells.
C) bipolar cells.
D) horizontal cells.
E) rods and cones.
33) Rods exposed to light will
A) depolarize due to the opening of sodium channels.
B) hyperpolarize due to the closing of sodium channels.
C) depolarize due to the opening of potassium channels.
D) hyperpolarize due to the closing of potassium channels.
34) A rod exposed to light will
A) undergo a graded depolarization that will increase its release of glutamate.
B) undergo a graded hyperpolarization that will increase its release of glutamate.
C) undergo a graded depolarization that will decrease its release of glutamate.
D) undergo a graded hyperpolarization that will decrease its release of glutamate.
37) In the human retina
A) cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot.
B) cone cells are more sensitive than rod cells to light.
C) cone cells, but not rod cells, have a visual pigment.
D) rod cells are most highly concentrated in the center of the retina.
38) Receptor proteins for the neurotransmitter molecules released by
rods and cones are found on
A) ganglion cells.
B) horizontal cells.
C) amacrine cells.
D) bipolar cells.
39) The blind spot in the human retina is the location that has the
collected axons of
A) ganglion cells.
B) bipolar cells.
C) primary visual cortex.
D) optic chiasma.
40) An injury to the occipital lobe will likely impair function of
A) primary visual cortex.
C) optic chiasma.
D) sense of taste.
42) The olfactory bulbs are located
A) in the nasal cavity.
B) in the anterior pituitary gland.
C) in the posterior pituitary gland.
D) in the brain.
43) The contraction of skeletal muscles is based on
A) actin filaments coiling up to become shorter.
B) myosin filaments coiling up to become shorter.
C) actin cross-bridges binding to myosin and then flexing.
D) myosin cross-bridges binding to actin and then flexing.
44) Compared to oxidative skeletal muscle fibers, those classified as
glycolytic typically have
A) a higher concentration of myoglobin.
B) a higher density of mitochondria.
C) a darker visual appearance.
D) less resistance to fatigue.
45) Myasthenia gravis is a form of muscle paralysis in which
A) motor neurons lose their myelination and the ability to rapidly fire action potentials.
B) acetylcholine receptors are destroyed by an overactive immune system.
C) ATP production becomes uncoupled from mitochondrial electron transport.
D) the spinal cord is infected with a virus that attacks muscle stretch receptors.
46) A skeletal muscle deprived of adequate ATP supplies will
A) immediately relax.
B) release all actin-myosin bonds.
C) enter a state where actin and myosin are unable to separate.
D) fire many more action potentials than usual and enter a state of "rigor."
47) Most of the ATP supplies for a skeletal muscle undergoing 1 hour
of sustained exercise come from
A) creatine phosphate.
C) substrate phosphorylation.
D) oxidative phosphorylation.
48) The calcium ions released into the cytosol during excitation of
skeletal muscle bind to
49) The "motor unit" in vertebrate skeletal muscle refers
A) one actin binding site and its myosin partner.
B) one sarcomere and all of its actin and myosin filaments.
C) one myofibril and all of its sarcomeres.
D) one motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers on which it has synapses.
50) The muscles of a recently deceased human can remain in a
contracted state, termed rigor mortis, for several hours, due to the
A) phosphorylated myosin.
B) ATP needed to break actin-myosin bonds.
C) calcium ions needed to bind to troponin.
D) oxygen supplies needed for myoglobin.
51) Calcium ions initiate sliding of filaments in skeletal muscles by
A) breaking the actin-myosin cross-bridges.
B) binding to the troponin complex, which then relocates tropomyosin.
C) transmitting action potentials across the neuromuscular junction.
D) spreading action potentials through the T tubules.
52) Muscle cells are stimulated by neurotransmitters released from
the synaptic terminals of
A) T tubules.
B) motor neuron axons.
C) sensory neuron axons.
D) motor neuron dendrites.
53) In a relaxed skeletal muscle, actin is not chemically bound to
54) Skeletal muscle contraction begins when calcium ions bind to
55) A skeletal muscle with abnormally low levels of calcium ions
would be impaired in
A) ATP hydrolysis.
B) the initiation of an action potential.
C) maintaining its resting membrane potential.
D) initiating contraction.
56) Which of the following is the correct sequence that describes the
excitation and contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber?
1. Tropomyosin shifts and unblocks the cross-bridge binding sites.
2. Calcium is released and binds to the troponin complex.
3. Transverse tubules depolarize the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
4. The thin filaments are ratcheted across the thick filaments by the heads of the myosin molecules using energy from ATP.
5. An action potential in a motor neuron causes the axon to release acetylcholine, which depolarizes the muscle cell membrane.
A) 2 → 1 → 3 → 5 → 4
B) 2 → 3 → 4 → 1 → 5
C) 5 → 3 → 1 → 2 → 4
D) 5 → 3 → 2 → 1 → 4
57) The lumen of the transverse tubules of skeletal muscles contains
A) extracellular fluid.
59) Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle all have
A) transverse tubules.
B) gap junctions.
C) motor units.
D) thick and thin filaments.
60) Calcium ions regulate contraction of smooth muscle cells by
61) Action potentials in the heart move from one contractile cell to
the next via
A) chemical synapses using acetylcholine.
B) chemical synapses using norepinephrine.
C) electrical synapses using gap junctions.
D) myelinated motor neurons.
73) The structure pictured in the figure is found in
A) skeletal muscles and smooth muscles.
B) cardiac muscles and skeletal muscles.
C) smooth muscles and cardiac muscles.
D) smooth muscles, skeletal muscles, and cardiac muscles.
74) Myosin filaments without actin overlap are in which section of
75) Overlapping actin and myosin filaments are found in which section
of the figure?
77) Which of the following sensory receptors is incorrectly paired
with its category?
A) hair cellmechanoreceptor
B) muscle spindlemechanoreceptor
C) taste receptor–chemoreceptor
D) olfactory receptorelectromagnetic receptor
78) The middle ear converts
A) air pressure waves to fluid pressure waves.
B) fluid pressure waves to air pressure waves.
C) air pressure waves to nerve impulses.
D) fluid pressure waves to nerve impulses.
79) During the contraction of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber,
A) break cross-bridges by acting as a cofactor in the hydrolysis of ATP.
B) bind with troponin, changing its shape so that the myosin-binding sites on actin are exposed.
C) transmit action potentials from the motor neuron to the muscle fiber.
D) spread action potentials through the T tubules.
80) Which sensory distinction is not encoded by a difference in
A) white and red
B) red and green
C) loud and faint
D) salty and sweet
81) The transduction of sound waves into action potentials takes
A) within the tectorial membrane as it is stimulated by the hair cells.
B) when hair cells are bent against the tectorial membrane, causing them to depolarize and release neurotransmitter that stimulates sensory neurons.
C) as the basilar membrane becomes more permeable to sodium ions and depolarizes, initiating an action potential in a sensory neuron.
D) as the basilar membrane vibrates at different frequencies in response to the varying volume of sounds.