Musculoskeletal

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created 5 years ago by Annabelle
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1

What do muscles consist of?

long organized units called muscle fibers

2

What do voluntary controls allow us to do with muscles

contract

move joints

3

What follow the muscle fibers in muscles?

blood vessels

lymphatics

nerves

4

What is the pennate pattern?

appears like a feather

5

What is bipennate?

whole feather

gastrocnemius

6

What is unipennate?

half a feather

7

What is multipennate?

many feathers

deltoid

8

What is circumpennate?

...

9

What do muscles attach to?

tendons

10

What are tendons made of?

a collection of tough muscle fibers

11

What is the purpose of a tendon?

attach muscles to bones

12

what are the two types of tendons?

cord like

flat sheets - aponeuroses

13

What is a flat sheet tendon called?

aponeuroses

14

What is the vascularity of tendons?

avascular

15

What does it mean that tendons are avascular?

heal slowly

16

What is a ligament?

bind bone to bone

17

What does a ligament consist of?

short bands of fibrous tissue

18

What gives the joints strength and support?

ligaments

19

Where are ligaments important?

shoulders, knees and ankles

20

What is Bursa?

saclike structure surrounding joints and tendons

21

What do bursa contain?

viscous fluid

22

What is the purpose of bursa?

reduce friction between bones

23

What is bursitis?

Inflammation of the bursa

24

What causes bursitis?

over use or over activity causes a fluid build up

25

What are the symptoms of bursitis?

swelling

pain

26

Which joints are affected by bursitis?

joints with the greatest motion

27

How many bursa are in the knee joint?

9

3 anterior

6 posterior (popliteal)

28

What are the purpose of nerves that run through the muscle?

connect the muscle to the CNS

29

How are the nerve fibers arranged in a muscle?

bundles called fasciculi

30

What are the fasciculi surrounded by?

dense insulating sheaths of myelin (schwann cells)

31

Are msucle nerves seen with ultrasound?

NO

32

What is the tissue called that attached tendons to bones?

fibrocartilage

33

Tendons are seen in two forms with ultrasound, what are they?

with and without synovial sheath

34

How does ultrasound see tendons?

with high res the complete range of motion can be seen

35

What are some examples of tendons are covered with a synovial sheath?

biceps

hand

wrist

ankle

36

What are some examples of tendons are NOT covered with a synovial sheath?

proximal gastrocnemius

achilles tendon

37

WHat is in place of the sheath on the gastrocnemius or achilles tendon?

paratendon

38

What is the mother of all imaging?

MRI

39

What helps in making a diagnosis when there is a musculoskeletal problem?

inflammation of the sheath and tendon

40

What is the sonographic appearance of ligaments?

thin and superficial

large joint ligaments appear as hyper echoic straplike structures

41

How do the cruciate ligaments of the knee appear with ultrasound?

the exception

hypoechoic

42

ligaments are difficult to view with ultrasound. What can be done to help?

use of a stand-off pad

43

What tranducer should be ised on ligaments?

10 MHz or higher

44

What is the sonographic appearance of muscles?

Main portions of the muscle fibers are hypoechoic - radiate toward central tendon

connective tissue fascia surrounds fibers and is echogenic

45

What surrounds the muscle fiber

connective tissue fascia

46

What is the sonographic appearance of a connective tissue fascia?

echogenic

47

What is the sonographic appearance of muscle in athletes?

hypoechoic due to hypertrophy

48

What is the sonographic appearance of sustained contraction of muscles?

same as an athletes

hypoechoic

49

What are the artifacts seen when examining muscles?

anisotropy

reverberation

refractile shadowing

time of flight artifact

50

What is anisotropy?

angle dependent

when returning sound beam misses the transducer caused by a curved reflector

51

What does anisotropy affect?

resolution

sharpness

52

What are the indications for a shoulder sono?

shoulder pain

pain with joint rotation

weakness with arm elevation

trauma

decreased range of motion

evaluation of soft tissue masses

53

What musculoskeletal ultrasound areas are viewed well with ultrasound?

rotator cuff

achilles tendon

carpal tunnel

54

What is a distraction tear?

indirect

occur as a result of stretching beyond maximum limit

55

What are the two types of muscle tears?

distraction tear (indirect)

compression tear (direct)

56

WHat is a compression tear

direct

occurs due to a crushing blow (blunt trauma)

57

What are some examples of people that would get a distraction tear?

kicker

yoga

58

What are the two types of compression tears?

complete

partial

59

What is the sonographic appearance of a complete tear?

clapper in bell sign

60

How does the clapper in bell sign appear?

hypoechoic ring

61

What is the sonographic appearance of a partial tear?

partial disturbance at the end

edge shadowing

Difficult to differentiate

62

What is tendonitis?

inflammation of a tendon

63

What is the diagnosis of an achilles tendon injury dependent on?

Thompsons test

64

What is the thompson test?

person on hands and knees

dr. squeezes calf

foot should move

* no movement means archilles is injured

65

What is the A.P. measurement of thearchcilles tendon?

5 - 6 mm

66

What does the rotator cuff consist of?

subscapularis

supraspinatus

infraspinatus

teres minor

67
card image

Where is the infraspinatus?

card image
68
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Where is the subscapularis?

card image
69
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Where is the supraspinatus?

card image
70
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Where is the teres minor?

card image
71

Tendons usually tear at the ________?

bone end

72

Who has the highest risk of injury to the achilles tendon?

athletes that wear high heals

73

Where is the origin of the achilles tendon?

gastrocnemius

74

Where is the insertion of the achilles tendon?

calcaneous

75

What is the function of the achilles tendon?

push up

stand on tippy toe

76

What happens to old people and the achilles tendon?

increased risk of injury

longer to repair

77

What is achilles tendinitis?

painful inflammatory condition

78

WHat is the sonographic appearance of achilles tendinitis?

halo around tendon

79

What is DeQuervains tendonitis?

painful condition affecting the tendons on the thumb side of your wrist

80

What is crepitus?

pop

81

What is carpel tunnel?

repetitive stress disorder

tendon enlarges and squeezes median nerve

82

How many nerve fibers are in the medium nerve?

1000's

83

explain the anatomy of the wrist?

transverse carpel ligament

median nerve running perpendicular

9 flexor tendons

8 carpel bones

84

What are the symptoms of carpel tunnel?

minor - tingling

major numbness