Introduction to organic chemistry: hydrocarbons

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Chemistry
Chapter 11
updated 6 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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1

Organic Chemistry

  • the study of carbon compounds
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organic compounds

  • A compound made from carbon and hydrogen
  • Sometimes contains other nonmetals such as oxygen, sofa, nitrogen, phosphorus, or halogen
  • Often found in common products such as gasoline, medicines, shampoos, plastics, and perfumes
  • have low melting and boiling points
  • Are not soluble in water
  • Less dense than water
  • Undergo combustion and are flammable
  • makes up 90% of the compounds in the world
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Formulas of organic compounds

  • Written with carbon first
  • Followed by hydrogen, and then any other elements
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Inorganic compounds

  • Have high melting and boiling points
  • Are usually soluble in water
  • Most do not burn in air
  • Contains ionic bonds
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Hydrocarbons

  • Organic compounds that consists of only carbon and hydrogen
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organic molecules

  • In organic molecules, every carbon atom has four bonds
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saturated hydrocarbon

  • When all the bonds in the molecule are single bonds
  • Contains only single bonds
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Alkanes

  • A type of hydrocarbon in which to carbon atoms are connected only by single bonds
  • Example: fuels
  • Names end in ane
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Ethane, propane, and butane

  • Alkanes that contain two, three, and four carbon atoms
  • Connected in a row or continuous chain
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IUPAC

  • International Union of pure and applied chemistry
  • System used by the chemists to name organic compounds
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Condensed structural formula

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  • Each carbon atom and it's attached hydrogen atoms are written as a group
  • A subscript indicates the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon Adam
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Molecular formula

  • Give the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms
  • Does not indicate their arrangement in the molecule
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Skeletal formula

  • Shows the carbon skeleton in which carbon atoms are represented as the end of each line or as corners
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Alkanes

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