Urinary System Flashcards


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1

Study of the urinary system

Urology

2

The urinary system consist of...

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, unrinary bladder, and urethra

3

What is the primary function of the urinary system?

To regulate the extracellular fluid in the body, through the production of the kidney filtrate.

4

What do the kidneys regulate?

1. blood volume
2. concentration of waste products in the blood
3. concentration of electrolytes in the plasma
4. plasma pH

5

What are the 3 layers of tissue that support and protect the kidney?

renal fascia (outer layer), adipose tissue (middle layer), fibrous renal capsule (inner layer)

6

blood eventually drains from the peritubular capillaries into the ______ vein system and the ____ _____.

renal, vena cava

7

Capsule that surrounds the glomerulus

Bowman's (glomerular)

8

single layer of cuboidal cells whick promote reabsorption of salt, water, and other molecules back into the peritubular capillaries.

proximal convulated tubule

9

loop in the medulla of the kidney(descending and ascending loop)

nephron loop (Henle's loop)

10

conducts urine through a pyramid, into a calyx and the pelvis

collectin duct

11

these are within the visceral layer of the capsule and their cytoplasmic extentions, interdigitate with the glomerular capillaries

podocytes

12

____________ proteins because of their large size and negative charge, don't leave the capillaries.

plasma

13

4 basic process of urine formation

1. glomeruli filtration
2. tubule reabsorption
3. tubular secretion
4. concentration

14

Most salt and water is reabsorbed by _______ from the proximal tubules

osmosis

15

Reabsorption of water in the distal tubule and collecting duct is regulated by what hormones?

ADH and aldosterone

16

Na+ is actively transported for the filtrate to the ____________ capillaries wich allow osmosis to occur

peritubular

17

Thin walled capillary loops that parallel the nephron loops-solutes are trapped a recirculated within the renal medulla, but water is tranported out

vasa recta

18

walls of collecting ducts are permiable to ____, but not to salt

water

19

What creates water channels within the walls of collecting ducts?

ADH

20

ADH is produced by the _________ and secreted from the ________?

hypothalamus, posterior pituatary

21

__________ in the hypthalamus detect increased salt concentration due to dehydration.

osmoreceptors

22

inadequate ADH, large volumes of dilute urine are excreted

diabetes insipidus

23

What are the 3 layers of the ureter?

inner mucosa, muscularis, adventitia

24

This is located posterior to symphysis pubis and anterior to the rectum

urinary bladder

25

folds of the urinary bladder which alow distention in the mucosa

rugae

26

layers of the bladder

mucosa, submucosa, musculairis, adventitia

27

The muscularis is composed of 3 muscle layers called the ____ _____.

detrusor muscle

28

This layer of the bladder appears only on the superior surface of the bladder; a contiuation of the peritoneum

adventitia

29

voluntarty control of urine

micturition

30

what is normal urine production?

1200 ml

31

Normal bladder capacity is about ....

700-800 ml

32

This center is located in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4rth sacral segments of the spinal cord?

micturition reflex center

33

inability to void or control urine

urinary incontinence

34

when output exceeds intake over a prolonged period is a called a _____ ______.

fluid deficiency

35

This disorder is when proportionate amounts of water and sodium are lost?

volume deppletion

36

The body eliminates more water than Na+ and the ECF osmolarity rises is a deficiency called _____.

dehydration

37

Important in maintaining fluid homeostasis;react chemically; and strongly affect osmolality

electrolytes

38

Removal of solutes from the blood either through the ______ filtrate or scretions through the ____ cells.

glomeruli, tubular

39

_______ is the opposite of reabsorption.

secretion

40

99% of filtered ______ is reabsorbed?

water

41

The volume of plasma from which a substance is removed in one minute is called ______ _____ _____.

renal plasma clearance

42

Urea is secreted by the _______ into the blood?

liver

43

_______ is a waste product of amino acid metabolism.

urea

44

Most of the glomerular blood passes unfiltered into the ________ arterioles and ______ capillaries.

efferent, peritubular

45

Blood must make many passes through the ______ before a substance is completely cleared.

kidneys

46

____ can be cleared from the blood in the kidneys in a single pass through.

PAH (para-aminohippuric acid)

47

waste product of muscle metabolism

creantinine

48

glucose appears in urine because concentration exceeds carrier numbers

glycosuia

49

the minimum level in blood that results in excretion

renal plasma threshold

50

A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ and K+ plasma concentrations?

aldosterone

51

Na+ and K+ are important in _____ _____ and ______ ______.

blood volume, pressure regulation

52

K+ is also important in ______ and _______ muscle formation.

cardiac, skeletal

53

Aldosterone conversely stimulates secretion of ___ into the tubules.

K+

54

Region where the afferent arteriole and distal convoluted in tubule come in contact.

juxtaglomerulus apparatus

55

Granular cells in the afferent arteriole secrete the hormone ______ which results in aldosterone secretion.

renin

56

Due to low Na+ concentration stimulates renin secretion fron _____ ______.

granular cells

57

This hormone stimultes salt excretion

natriuretic

58

Most important aspects of homeostasis

acid-base control

59

_______ are constantly produced metabolically

acids

60

_______ resist changes in pH.

buffers

61

___________ can neutralize more acid or base than any other system.

kidneys

62

Renal tubules secrete H+ ion into the ________ fluid where most is bound to ammonia and phosphate buffers and excreted as _______.

tubular, urine

63

_________ are the only organs which excrete H+ ions.

kidneys

64

below 7.35 pH

acidosis

65

above 7.45 pH

alkalosis

66

kidneys increase H+ secretion in _________

acidosis

67

________ acids are normally buffered by HCO3-

metabolic

68

increase urine output

diuretics

69

urine disorder in which their is paniful elimination.

dysuria

70

Blood in urine?

hematuria

71

Bateria in the urine?

bacturia

72

Pus in urine?

pyuria

73

insufficient output

oliguris

74

excessive output

polyuria

75

inspection of urinary bladder with cytoscope

cytoscopy

76

test for color, specific gravity, chemical composition, bacteria, crystals, and cast

urinalysis

77

accumulations of proteins that leaked through the glomeruli

cast

78

Name some infections of urinary organs?

urethritis, cystitis, nephritis, pyelitis

79

blow to kidneys; straddle injuries; pelvic injuries to the bladder

trauma

80

stones, cyst, tumors

obstructions

81

chronic and accute; can regenerate

renal failure