Ch. 15 Judiciaries

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1

law

that which must be obeyed under penalties

2

positive law

that which is written by humans and accepted over time- the opposite of natural law

3

plantiff

the person who complains in law case

4

common law

"judge made law," old decisions built up over the centuries

5

civil law

noncriminal disputes among individuals

6

constitutional law

that which grows out of a countries basic documents

7

higher law

that which comes from god

8

natural law

that which comes from nature, understood by reasoning

9

reciprocity

mutual application of legal standard

10

consistency

applying the same standards to all

11

appeal

taking a case to a higher court

12

brief

written summary submitted by one side giving relevant facts, laws, and precedents

13

precedent

legal decisions cased on earlier decisions

14

canon law

laws of the roman catholic church, based on roman law

15

bench

the office of judgeship

16

roman law

system based on codes of ancient rome

17

code law

laws arranged in books, originally updated roman law

18

adversarial

system based on two opposing parties to a dispute

19

accusatorial

like adversarial but with a prosecutor accusing a defendant of a crime

20

investigating judge

in european legal systems , judicial officer who both gathers evidence and issues indictments

21

indict

pronounced in-dite ; to formally charge someone with a crime

22

scattergram

graph showing position of items on two axes

23

outlier

item that deviates from its expected position

24

WASP

white anglo-saxon protestant

25

warren court

the liberal, activist U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, 1953-1969

26

sit-in

tactic of overturning local laws be deliberately breaking them,as at segregated lunch counters

27

indigent

having no money

28

jim crow

system of segregationist laws once standard in the U.S South